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Unity and Sectionalism

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Luke Bailey

on 12 November 2018

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Transcript of Unity and Sectionalism

Unity and Sectionalism
10.3 (We're just completely skipping 10.2)
The Era of Good Feelings
In 1816, Americans were feeling pretty good about life. We "beat" the British in another war, the economy was recovered from Jefferson's Embargo Act, things were just tops.

James Monroe, a Republican, easily won the presidential election replacing Madison.
But, we got a problem....
Slavery! Here's the deal- we're expanding westward, right? So that means we're gonna add new states. New states get senators.

Should these new senators but anti-slavery or pro-slavery? How do we agree on this? Are we actually going to fix the slavery problem or are we just going to kick the can down the road?
The Missouri Compromise
We kick the can down the road, of course! The Missouri Compromise was a way to put off the issue.

This is what it did: It added a new state, Missouri, as a slave state. But it also invented another state called Maine which was free.

Secondly, it made a rule that no more slave states could be added above a line on the map- the 36-30 parallel.
Relations with Spain
Spain at the time owned Florida. America wanted Florida. Spain was also getting pretty weak- it wasn't really a great European power anymore.

Andrew Jackson disobeyed orders and began attacking Spanish forts for fun. He won the battles, freaking Spain out and convincing them to give us Florida as long as we promised to forget all other claims on Spanish land (Mexico, Texas, California, etc)
The Adams-Onis Treaty- 1819
The Grand Tour
Riotously popular, James Monroe did something unprecedented- he set off an a tour of the country.

He was the last president that had been a founding father, having fought alongside Washington. He still wore the old short breeches and powdered wigs even though those had gone out of fashion.

He went town to town greeted with massive applause, even visiting John Adams in Braintree, Massachusetts.
John Adams
A year later, in 1818, Abigail Adams dies. John Adams is devastated. One of his sons, Charles, becomes an alcoholic and kills himself as well.

His friends, along with his son John Quincy (James Monroe's Secretary of State) encourage him to write to an old friend and enemy- Thomas Jefferson.

He does so, and the two have a legendary correspondence that continues until they both die on the same say- the 4th of July, 1826, exactly 50 years after the signing of the Declaration.
Regional Differences
In Monroe's second term, the unity begins to break down- as always, it's between North and South that the conflict lays.

John C. Calhoun, a South Carolina planter, began a vicious tirade in the 1820s against federal power. He believed strongly in state sovereignty, meaning states should have the right to govern themselves without the Federal government.

This regional difference in beliefs about state vs federal power continue to this day.
The Monroe Doctrine
The 1820s were a crazy time in Latin America. Multiple countries including Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia were rising up against Spain and declaring independence.

This freaked Europe out and a "Quadruple Alliance"- France, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, planned to send troops.

James Monroe made a declaration in 1823 saying that North and South America "are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by European powers."

In other words, the Americas are our sandbox and only we get to play in it.

We still apply the Monroe Doctrine to this day.
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