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Theories Study Guide

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Josh C

on 9 December 2011

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Transcript of Theories Study Guide

Laurie Phillips
Josh Chave Comps Prep Theories Psychoanalytic Transactional Analysis Adlerian Person Centered Gestalt Family Systems How to use this study guide Behavior
Therapy Cognitive
Behavior Therapy Reality Therapy Solution Focused Therapy Feminist Existential Alfred Adler
Virginia Satir
Carl Whitaker Key Concepts Individuals are part of a system (family) that must be understood to help the group. Philosophy What makes it distinct Works with the whole system rather than individual. Holistic model that enters the family’s world, believes that all interactions in a family have an impact on the individual. Language of the Theory Adlerian Family Therapy
Intergenerational Family Therapy (Bowen)
Human Validation Process (Satir)
Experiential Family Therapy (Whitaker)
Structural-Strategic Family Therapy (Minuchin)
Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy (Gottman) The 8 lenses Individual
Teleological (What motivates specific behavior)
Sequences (patterns)
Organizational Developmental
Process Goals Facilitate change in family system rather than individual Therapeutic
Relationship Joining- Meeting each member of the system (family). Role of counselor can change based on theoretical orientation Techniques Genograms
Tests and Assessments
8 lenses Contributions Blame placed on system, system must change in order for healing to occur Therapy looks at how the families interact and looks for dysfunction Do not lose the individual when spending so much time on the whole system May work better than individual counseling with community oriented cultures Limitations Multicultural Concerns Alfred Adler
Natalie Rogers Remind yourself what you know
Review what you don't Differentiate between theories! Key Concepts Key Concepts Key Concepts Key Concepts Key Concepts Key Concepts Key Concepts Key Concepts Key Concepts Key Concepts Key Concepts Philosophy Emphasis on equality, specifically within gender and sexuality Society’s influence on a client, particularly social and political What makes it distinct Gender fairness and social change
Clients are struggling with gender issues Language of the Theory Androcentric (focus on male roles)
Social Action Empowerment
Power Analysis
Social Change
Bibliotherapy Goals The Therapeutic Relationship Contributions Limitations Multicultural Concerns to gain awareness of gender roles and gender dynamics Philosophy that can be applied to theories
Give client power
partnership social change and the aknowledgement of bias
rejects diagnosis could overly influence client
blame oppression rather than accept responsibility Safety of your client in extremely oppressive homes BF Skinner
Joseph Wolpe
Arnold Lazarus Albert Bandura Philosophy What makes it distinct Language of the Theory Current behaviors are important, while the past is unimportant Scientific model for behavior changes using measurable results Behavior therapy developed in 4 phases
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
Operant Conditioning (BF Skinner)
Social Learning (Albert Bandura)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Systematic Desensitization
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Positive Reinforcement (“Good Job”)
Negative Reinforcement (nagging stops)
Positive Punishment (spanking)
Negative Punishment (grounding) Goals Therapeutic Relationship Techniques Contributions Limitations Multicultural Concerns Change behavior patterns in a measurable way Counselor as a teacher
Client is learning skills Systematic Desensitization
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing Tailored treatments
Measurable goals
Works well in the
treatment of phobias. Not concerned with the past
Emphasis on behaviors rather than feelings Works well with multicultural clients
Clients must be a part of the relationship
Clients can become dependent Language of the Theory Philosophy What makes it distinct Albert Ellis (REBT) Aaron Beck (CT) Similar to Behavior therapy
no emphasis on the past
Client does not have control over events, does control response Activating Event
Rational Emotive Imagery
Disputing irrational beliefs
Self-talk Directive
REBT and CT focus on thoughts and how they influence behavior patters.
A (activating event)
B (Belief)
C (Consequence) model Goals Therapeutic Relationship Techniques Contributions Limitations Multicultural Concerns Combat negative self-talk change belief systems challenging cognitions Counselor is a teacher
the sessions are directive
the relationship is not as important
as in more person centered approaches Challenge negative self talk
Challenge irrational thinking (shoulds and musts)
Counselors use role playing and
self management strategies Tailored treatments
Structure and accountability
Particularly effective in clients with anxiety. Not concerned with the past
Emphasis on behaviors rather than feelings
Client must be able to reason well Tailored to each individual client
very easily adaptable to different cultures William Glasser and Robert Wubbolding Philosophy Language of the Theory What makes it distinct Emphasizes choice
People are motivated to change
Similar to CBT: Changing actions and thoughts,
feelings will gradually change No emphasis on the past
here and now WDEP Model W-Wants
P-Planning Personal Responsibility Therapeutic Relationship Limitations Techniques Multicultural Concerns Contributions Goals The main goal is getting the client to accept personal responsibility for their life Counselor creates a safe place
Challenges the client to see reality
Challenges the client to take responsibility WDEP Model
Challenging the client’s current worldview Began as a therapy for individuals with conduct problems who were shown reality in an attempt to improve conduct and relationships Does not emphasize feelings or the past Focuses only on the here and now Tailored to each individual client
Very easily adaptable to different cultures. Multicultural Concerns Therapeutic Relationship Language of the Theory Contributions Limitations What makes it distinct Goals Techniques Problems are less important than solutions Philosophy Insoo Kim Berg Steve de Shazer Future oriented
Concern is with solving the problem
Brief Solution-talk/problem talk
Miracle Question
Pre-therapy change (what have you tried) Create solutions with the client Collaborative and team oriented Miracle question
pre-therapy change
homework The brevity of Solution Focused has made it an important theory Clients must be able to reason well Theory involves entering client's world. Therefore can be applied broadly Logotherapy
Existential Vacuum
Paradoxical intention
Existential guilt Techniques are not the primary focus of this theory Multicultural Concerns Language of the Theory Techniques Limitations Emphasis on exploring philosophical concepts: The relationship is the critical stimulus for change
Therapist’s primary task is to establish an authentic and personal bond Emphasis on freedom, individuality and autonomy may be in conflict with some cultural perspectives What makes it distinct Therapeutic Relationship Lacks a systematic statement of principles and procedures
Has not been subjected to limited scientific testing
May not be appropriate for some clients
especially lower functioning clients and those in crisis Philosophy To help clients see that they are free
To discover what is blocking their freedom
To challenge them to accept responsibility for their lives
To find meaning in life
To improve relationships with others Anxiety, guilt, isolation and fear are normal
Viewing awareness of death as a positive force
Key concepts can be integrated into other theories As humans, we are capable of self-awareness.
Freedom to choose how we live
Responsible for our choices
Concerned making connections with others.
Need to find meaning
Anxiety is an inevitable part of life
An awareness of death Goals Contributions Viktor Frankl
Rollo May
Irvin Yalom life
meaning freedom
responsibility The most important thing to know for the comps is... Relax! First psychological theory to be accepted
Influences most other theories
Detailed description of personality formation
Concepts of transference/countertransference,
anxiety, resistance and ego defenses Psychological issues result from the unconscious
Personality issues have their roots in early childhood
People are driven by sexual and aggressive impulses Contributions Free associations
Dream analysis
Analysis of transference
Analysis of resistance Language of the Theory Techniques Highly directive
“Blank screen”
Lots of therapist interpretation What makes it distinct Therapeutic Relationship Making the unconscious conscious
Strengthening the ego
In Jungian individuation:
discovering ones true inner self Philosophy Goals Multicultural Concerns Internal focus
The therapist’s distance and formality may be appealing
Ego defense concept can be useful Transference
Unconscious Limitations Long term expensive process for clients
Stresses biological and instinctual
process rather then cultural and social Belief in determinism
Psychosexual stages of development
Three components of personality:
id, ego, and superego
Long term and highly directive Sigmund Freud, Erik Erickson, Carl Jung Jung
Collective unconscious
Personality typology Complexes
Defense Mechanisms
Object Relations Jungian techniques:
Active imagination Goals To learn to function from all ego states
To avoid becoming involved in games
To become aware of unhealthy lifescripts
To reconstruct new healthy lifescripts The language used to explain the way people behave Philosophy Terminology may be difficult to understand
Life scripts are rooted in cultural heritage
Easy to impose own cultural values
May be useful for those preferring an
educational model Language of the Theory Limitations Useful tool but will often need to be supplemented with other models
Lack of emphasis on role of counselor People operate from 3 ego states:
Child Contributions Lifescript
Life Positions
TA Games
Stamps Rational easy to understand approach
Clearly defined terminology
Can be useful in family/marital counseling Eric Berne Techniques Multicultural Concerns What makes it distinct Therapeutic Relationship Counselor is a teacher, teaching vocabulary
Set goals Analysis of ego states and transactions
Analysis of behaviors and interactions
Use of treatment contracts with specific goals
Originally designed for use in group therapy (Super Ego)
(Id) People act from different ego states
Transactions can be:

Ulterior Transations
Ego State
Time structure Techniques Limitations Multicultural Concerns Alfred Adler Therapy consists of a mutual respect
Counselor educates client
Counselor challenges errors in thinking Easily accessible to other cultures
Phenomenological People want to feel connected to others
Unconscious is not nearly as important as conscious
Conscious decisions can affect change Therapeutic
Relationship Limited research base Philosophy Examine goals and see if they are realistic
Help client achieve 3 life tasks Very flexible approach
Birth order
Heavily influences other theories What makes it distinct Goals Contributions birth order
phenomenological approach Inferiority feelings
Fictional finalism (goals that guide what people do)
Guiding self ideal (what person strives to)
3 life tasks (social, love and occupational)
Family constellations
Private logic
Miracle Question
Encouragement 4 Phases
Establish relationship
Explore individual’s private logic
Reorientation and Reeducation Language of the Theory Lack of direction and structure
Limited use for non-verbal clients
Danger of counselor remaining
passive and just reflecting Contributions Techniques Therapeutic Relationship Goals Limitations Positive view of humans
People have innate tendency towards growth
Trusts clients capacity for self-direction What makes it distinct Language of the Theory Has been adapted and used across many cultures worldwide
Rogers and others conducted numerous
workshops on cross-cultural communications First theory have client take an active role
Core conditions can be applied across all
theories Emphasizes the importance of the therapeutic relationship over the use of specific techniques
Basic techniques include:
active listening
reflection of feelings
summarization Counselors must embody the core therapeutic conditions:
Congruence genuine, integrated and authentic
Unconditional positive regard
Accurate empathic understanding Multicultural Concerns Unconditional positive regard
Core Counseling Conditions
Actualizing tendency
Phenomenological Carl Rogers Philosophy The therapeutic relationship rather than techniques facilitates client growth and change Provide safe climate for self-exploration
Assist client in growth process rather than solve problems
Greater openness, trust in oneself, spontaneity and aliveness What makes it distinct Multicultural Concerns Individuals have the capacity to self regulate
Therapy is a means of increasing awareness
Therapy is working through unfinished business in the present
Change happens when clients are fully present and aware I/Thou relationship
The quality of the therapist presence is most important
Counselors share their perceptions and feelings
Therapy is viewed as a two-way engagement
Counselor is a facilitator, confronter and challenger
Client is very active in the process Increasing client’s moment-to-moment awareness
Accepting responsibility for actions
Expanding the client’s capacity to make choices Limitations Empty Chair
Making the rounds
Reversal technique
Staying with the feeling
Gestalt dream work Emphasis on the here and now
Bringing awareness to the mind body connection Goals Direct experiencing
Holistic approach
Bringing past into the present
Experiments Philosophy Therapeutic
Relationship Nonverbal behaviors may be useful for other cultures
May also be useful for clients with language barriers
Difficult for more reserved cultures
Useful for client struggling to balance two cultures Fritz Perls
Laura Perls
Miriam Polster
Erving Polster Techniques Techniques can push clients too much
Clients must be comfortable with fantasy
and imagination Language of the Theory Field Theory
Organismic Self Regulation
Figure Formation Process
Unfinished Business
Contact Boundaries Contributions
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