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National Languages and Language planning

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Dale Mushinski

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of National Languages and Language planning

National Languages and Language Planning
Team #6: "Dat GPA(GEEPA)"
Self-Determination, Motivation, and
the Learning of Chinese as a Heritage

Heritage Language
Self-Determination Theory
Social Identity
Ethnic Identity
Article #1

Francois, f / Fransask-qui? Franco-quoi? Constructions identaires d'un enseignant en formation en situation linguistique minoritaire
Digging Deeper - François
A Brief Overview of the article
Identity and Heritage
Case study on François
Saskatchewan's French teacher program
Bilingual writing style
Dualism /Official Bilingualism
Official Language Minority Communities
In the case of François...
Article #2
Digging Deeper - François
Identity - Significance in a name
-Why not "Fransaskois"?

-"Francophone" vs "francophone"

-These words are some examples of how people define themselves based on the languages they speak as well as their geopolitical location.
Official Bilingualism in Canada
Thinking Critically - Language Planning
Digging Deeper - François
-What kind of environments are student teachers (teaching minority languages) exposed to?

-How does "Language Planning" fit into François' story?

-How much does "Language Planning" factor into what seems to be personal choice?
Economic, social and political factors
Digging Deeper - François
Thinking Critically - National Languages
Saskatchewan as an Official language minority commmunity
Official Languages of Canada and Chinese-Speaking Regions
Canada: English & French
-French is a "national language" with influence in what the world sees as Canadian culture; why is it marginalized by English in many communities?

-Taking a look back into history...
-French presence in Canada has always been quite concentrated in the region of the province of Quebec
-Canada as a territory was contested by the French and the English during the colonial era.

-This filters down as a factor in individual language choice even today
Digging Deeper - François
French Language Planning in Canada
Ling 160
How can HL relate to national languages and language planning?
-Form, function and attitudes
Speaking Spanish Like a Boy Scout: Language Socialization, Resistance, and Reproduction in a Heritage Language Scout Troop
Mandarin is one language that almost every Chinese-speaking community can speak; it is officially named the "common language" by the Chinese government.
National Languages in Canada and Chinese-Speaking Regions
Canada is a multi-cultural society; almost 200 languages are spoken in households across the country.
Children & Language
Canada and Minority Languages
-is the only country with an official multicultural policy within a 'bilingual framework'

offers: acceptance, equality, official and societal support, and support for the maintenance of heritage languages (HLs) and cultures
The Experiment
145 students enrolled in university-level Chinese courses:
Why are children important when looking at language planning?
Canada and Minority Languages
Agency of children
Group Dynamics
Language choice: Spanish or English?
From a young age peer pressure determines language use
Resistance to Spanish Use
Children may resist language indoctrination
English is so prevalent in Canada as the "acceptable" language
"Us" vs. "Them" mentality
How and Why?
-culturally and linguistically diverse province, however the government does not fund programs for immigrant HLs
China is a multi-ethnic society; almost 300 languages are spoken in households across the country.
options available to Spanish learners: Spanish courses, and small informal community/family based programs
Official languages mean the languages have a de jure status.
National languages mean the languages have a de facto status.
Chinese Language Planning in Canada
Status or prestige planning is the key to motivating language learners (heritage or otherwise) to learn a language (e.g., Chinese).
Canada and Minority Languages
Spanish in Canada
- Spanish is Canada's fifth-largest non-official mother tongue

- Everyday interactions contribute to the reproduction of or resistance to English
Canada and Minority Languages
Language ideologies:

values and beliefs that individuals and communities maintain about the worth of their languages and how these languages should be used in their social lives
Canada and Minority Languages
Spanish in Canada
-Families organize support groups to transmit Spanish language and culture to their children

-Through efforts of grassroots groups, HLs are preserved and maintained against language shift/assimilation
Canada and Minority Languages
Spanish in Canada
- Article focuses on a Spanish-language Scout troop

- Study is based on language socialization

- Voluntary groups are important sites for reproduction of ideologies

Canada and Minority Languages
Language socialization:

non-linear, dynamic, complex, and multidirectional process where individuals and groups socialize others 'into new domains of knowledge and cultural practice'
Nisha Birdi
Nisha Birdi
Nisha Birdi
Nisha Birdi
What Have We Learned from These Articles?
1. The language one speaks significantly influences, if not completely defines, the speaker's concept of self.
Ken Ip
Ken Ip
Ken Ip
Ken Ip
Ken Ip
Digging Deeper - François
Quick Introduction
-Language, heritage and Identity

-The significance of a name

-Thinking Critically - National Languages

-Thinking Critically - Language Planning

-French Language Planning in Canada
Chinese-Chinese group

English-Chinese group

Non-Chinese group
The Result of the Experiment
There are plenty of factors that affect the motivation of language learners.
Resistance and Reproduction of Language
Language Maintenance
Mr. Hernandez...
Stresses the importance of speaking Spanish to newcomers
Spanish-only language policy

Spanish is the main language of communication between adults and children

Activities are done using Spanish

"Us" Vs. "Them" environment
Resistance to English
HL learner and non-HL learner
Self-determined orientation for engagement
What does this do?
Creates a community where Spanish is "linguistically correct"

Establishes English as a threat to the development of Spanish language ideologies
However, children still used English. Why?
Nisha Birdi
Nisha Birdi
Nisha Birdi
Article #3:
Susan Fok
-Canadian French

-Government use (Think about domains of language use)

-Quebec Subculture

-Regarded as useful, essential for government work (Prestige Planning)
Acquisition planning is the means to supporting language learners' (heritage or otherwise) desire to learn a language (e.g., Chinese).
Status or prestige planning and acquisition planning exist side by side and play a part together.
Affective Factors Related to Successful Second Language Learning and Use
1. Motivation vs. Amotivation
Susan Fok
Susan Fok
Susan Fok
-How does language establish identity?

-How far does "heritage" go in what he decided to learn?
2. Self-determination theory: learner's sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness
Institutional Structures to Support Immigrants' Cultural and Linguistic Vitality
1. Education: extra-curricular language schools & publicly funded institutions
British Columbia
Key Words
Brogden, Lace Maries. 2009. François, f / Fransask-qui ? Franco-quoi ?: Constructions identitaires d'un
enseignant en formation en situation linguistique minoritaire. The Canadian Modern Language Review. 66.1:73-99.
Guardado, Martin. 2009. Speaking Spanish Like a Boy Scout: Language Socialization, Resistance, and
Reproduction in a Heritage Language Scout Troop. The Canadian Modern Language Review. 66.1:101-129.
Comanaru, Ruxandra and Kimberly Noels. Self-Determination, Motivation, and the Learning of Chinese as
a Heritage Language. The Canadian Modern Language Review. 66.1:131-158.
2. Favourable environmental conditions: home, school, and societal factors
Teachers need to appeal to the students affectionately to make them feel that they have a purpose for learning and using a language, out of their free will, capably, and close to the particular community.
It needs to have well-funded organizations, as well as the supportive everyday interactions, to effectively advocate and promote a language from a foreign culture.
Two major themes
The impact of high-stakes language testing in language teacher education
The fluidity of categories of linguistic identities
Present in Bogden's Case study:
Source: Statistics Canada, Portrait of Official-language Communities in Canada. 2006 Census, Cat. No. 92-592-XVB.
3. The maintenance of a language depends on fostering a positive public image to encourage both heritage language learners and others to be interested in learning this language.
The impact of high-stakes languages testing
How did this affect Francois?
2. Freedom of language choice is constrained by expectations, norms, and options available to the language user.
Students become aware of their own linguistic capabilities
When François struggled, it put into question his knowledge of french and his linguistic identity
François' Linguistic Identity
What did the testing put into question?
His Francophone-ness
His ability to speak french
His career choice
Maintaining his identity among peers as a "Mr. Fransaskois" and as a proficient french speaker
More on Identities
as Well as Linguistic Ideologies
What is a "Vrais Francophone?"
At what point do we identify a "good" speaker of a language?
What do we classify as a "language" anyways?
Training François to teach "Proper Canadian French"
Heritage language well promoted
Feeling of pride, belonging, and connection to the language community
Bogden presents more questions than answers:
Goals of status or prestige planning and/or acquisition planning achieved
Further study is needed, especially in the context of linguistic minorities and language education
Bilingualism does not mean a lingusitic separation between english and french (ie. codeswitching)
A dualism paradox: 1+1=more than 2
This is more than just a case study!
Dale and Ken
Ken Ip
To Conclude:
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