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Caffeine - ISU Exercise Science

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by

Kirandeep Multani

on 26 October 2015

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Transcript of Caffeine - ISU Exercise Science

Naturally occurring chemical, also known as trimethylxanthine
Consists of Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O), and Hydrogen (H).

Shares chemical mechanisms with other drugs such as opiates
What is it made of?
-Stimulant drug
-Effects occur 45-60 min after use
-Affects the CNS, Heart, Blood Vessels and Kidneys
What does it do?
Psychological (Caffeine – a psychoactive drug)
Caffeine's effects on ...
Adenosine

Fighting Headaches

Caffeine also causes the brain's blood vessels to constrict, because it blocks adenosine's ability to open them up.

This effect is why some headache medicines like Anacin containing caffeine -- constricting blood vessels in the brain can help stop a vascular headache.
Adrenaline


Ability to exercise at the same intensity for a longer period of time.
Mood

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that activates pleasure centers in certain parts of the brain

Caffeine manipulates dopamine levels by slowing down the rate of dopamine reabsorption and increases dopamine level causing a change our moods
The most important long-term problem with caffeine is its effect on your sleep

Adenosine reception, which is affected by caffeine, is important to sleep, and especially to deep sleep. You may be able to fall asleep hours after that big cup of coffee, but your body will probably miss out on the benefits of deep sleep.

Trying to quit can leave you tired and depressed, fighting splitting headaches as blood vessels in the brain dilate. These negative effects can be enough to force caffeine addicts back onto the drug

Power Performance
-Increased blood-flow to the central nervous system, giving that feeling of alertness and awareness.

-Body will also increase its adrenaline released through an increase in caffeine levels. This adrenaline will stimulate your muscles and improve your performance.

-In addition, Caffeine can act as a diuretic, which could lead to an unnecessary pre-exercise loss of fluid, with negative knock-on effects on thermal balance and exercise performance.

- The average improvement in performance is about 12 percent, with more benefits noticed during endurance exercise than with shorter exercise (eight to 20 minutes) and a negligible amount for sprinters.
Nutrition
Small amounts of caffeine show a favourable impact on factors like decision-making and reaction time, whereas larger amounts enhance exercise performance, particularly endurance.
Withdrawal Effects of Caffeine

The safest and probably most effective way to deal with a caffeine addiction would be to gradually reduce the amount of intake.

This will help lessen the impact the effects will have on the body.
Gradually Reducing
Coffee plants seeds, cacao beans, tea bushes and other plants

The top four products that caffeine is found listed in order of highest amount to least is coffee, pop, tea and chocolate.
C8 H10 N4 O2
It has three metabolites, each with unique attributes in terms of how it affects the body and by what means
Positive
Effects
Blocks Adenosine Receptor Sites
Increases Adrenaline Level
Manipulates the Levels of Dopamine
Adenosine is a neurotransmitter that acts on adenosine receptors; its function it to slow down the nerves causing drowsiness. In the brain, this also causes blood vessels to dilate, most likely to let more oxygen into that organ during sleep.
The pituitary gland senses speeding of the nerves and considers it as some sort of emergency occurring, so it releases hormones that tell the adrenal glands to produce adrenaline (epinephrine).

Your heart beats faster.

Blood vessels on the surface constrict to slow blood flow from cuts and increase blood flow to muscles.

The liver releases sugar into the bloodstream for extra energy.

Muscles tighten up, ready for action.

Blood flow to the stomach slows.
Behavioral Effects
Motor Activity
Vigilance
Attention
Learning
&
Memory
Mood
Arousal
Arousal
- In purity, it tastes bitter and is a white crystalline powder
Caffeine enters the body,

Adenosine (a chemical that plays an important role in energy transfer and signal transduction) is released and goes towards the brain receptors

Caffeine acts like a barrier

Resulting in the brain not getting the signal to slow down.

The brain eventually figures out what is happening

Overtime, your body becomes immune to the amount intake of caffeine the body is exposed to.
Change Picture
Function

Caffeine is used a heart and brain stimulant.

Mild diuretic which causes the body to produce more urine
Science of Caffeine
Caffeine is everywhere in our society.

The vast majority of people consume caffeine in some form on a daily basis.

Individuals who constantly have to deal with table-work, such as teachers, consume a drastic amount of caffeine.

Abuse of caffeine over long periods can lead to severe health problems and even death.
.... what is this caused from
change picture
Cysticfibrosis Breast Disease
In one study of 634 women with fibrocystic breast disease (compared to1066 women without the disease), the occurrence of fibrocystic breast disease was positively associated with average daily consumption of caffeine.
The reason behind this is unknown.
Women who consumed 31 to 250 mg/day of caffeine were reported to have a 1.5 times increase in odds to have the disease.
Renal
Renal side effects associated with caffeine consumption have included:
Dehydration due to diuretic traits
creatinine clearance
sodium and calcium excretion.
The First Sip
Gastrointestinal
necrotizing enterocolitis in infants
In a test, six cases of necrotizing enterocolitis (3 fatal) were reported among 85 infants exposed to caffeine injection
No casualties were reported
The caffeine is entering your blood stream through the lining of your mouth, throat, and stomach. It only takes 45 minutes for 99% of the caffeine to be absorbed through these membranes
Nervous System
Effects related to the central nervous system stimulation such as:

Irritability
Restlessness
Also includes the reduced control of fine motor movements.
Endocrine
Decrease in insulin sensitivity in individuals following caffeine consumption.
The mechanism leading to this effect is unknown but may be related to elevated adrenaline levels.
Rarely included alterations in serum glucose such as hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
Caffeine does not accumulate in the bloodstream and is not stored in the body

Most of it is excreted through the urine within 6 hours.


Increase in blood pressure
4.5 mmHg in premenopausal women
4.1 mmHg in men

Premenopausal women showed an increase in cardiac output, whereas men showed increased vascular resistance

Aortic stiffness in treated hypertensive patients
Rarely include tachycardia, increased left ventricular output, or increased stroke volume.
Journey of Caffeine Through The Body
Caffeinism
High doses of caffeine lead to caffeinism
Caffeine may cause anxiety and panic in panic disorder patients and may aggravate premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Excessive caffeine intake has been associated with miscarriages and low birth weight babies.
Cause Depression
Caffeine increases heartbeat, respiration, basal metabolic rate, and the production of stomach acid and urine; and it relaxes smooth muscles, notably the bronchial muscle.
So, when a child or a older person gets an Asthma attack, giving them coffee can help them from the congestion. It relief and makes it easier for them to breath.
Medicine for Asthma
Over Dose
Doses of over 750 mg (7 cups of coffee) can produce a reaction similar to an anxiety attack, including delirium, ringing ears, and light flashes.

Varies from person to person
Caffeine enters the body,

Adenosine (a chemical that plays an important role in energy transfer and signal transduction) is released and goes towards the brain receptors

Caffeine acts like a barrier

Resulting in the brain not getting the signal to slow down.

The brain eventually figures out what is happening

Overtime, your body becomes immune to the amount intake of caffeine the body is exposed to.
Caffeine intake allows free fatty acids to mobilize faster, which in turn enhances the endurance performance during long term exercise
Endurance
Ergogenic aid is something athletes use as a "magic bullet" to gain advantage over other components.

Caffeine is one of the many ergogenic aids.
Past:

In the past, a spike was observed in the number of athletes taking large amounts of caffeine. WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) enforcing a ban on caffeine.
12 micrograms per millilitre
6-8 Cups of Coffee
600-800 grams

The ban was lifted in 2004 because as observed, caffeine consumption had been significantly reduced.

The ban was lifted in 2004 because as observed, caffeine consumption had been significantly reduced.
Most commonly found in ...
Decrease in insulin sensitivity in individuals following caffeine consumption.
The mechanism leading to this effect is unknown but may be related to elevated adrenaline levels.
Rarely included alterations in serum glucose such as hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
Endocrine
Helps decreasing the chance of obtaining type II diabetes
Decrease in insulin sensitivity in individuals following caffeine consumption.
The mechanism leading to this effect is unknown but may be related to elevated adrenaline levels.Rarely included alterations in serum glucose such as hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
Endocrine
Cardiovascular

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that activates pleasure centers in certain parts of the brain

By: Darshit , Parva , Atanu , Tracey , Kiran & Trey

Research has proven that overtime the body builds up a tolerance to the amount of caffeine that is consumed

If this amount is suddenly stopped , withdrawal effects may become present. Some effects of the body reacting from no caffeine can be:

•Headaches
•Sleepiness
•Irritability
•Lack of concentration
•Insomnia
The Three metabolites of Caffeine...
Paraxanthine
Increases lipolysis
Theobromine
Vasodilator - increases blood flow
Theophylline
conditions lungs while having several stimulant effects
It is a chemical messenger that helps in the transmission of signals in the brain

Dopamine is released during pleasurable activities.

Caffeine slows down the rate of dopamine re-absorption thus increases dopamine levels and promotes a feeling of pleasure and well-being
Caffeine and Dopamine
Full transcript