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Biosphere and it`s stability

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Nurzhan Kulshebaev

on 12 February 2014

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Transcript of Biosphere and it`s stability

By Kulshebayev Nurzhan
In the atmosphere, higher levels of life are determined by an ozone screen, located at the 16-20km.
The living matter of biosphere nad Its functions
The living matter of biospehere fulfills the following functions:
is fulfilled by green plants, which in the process of photosynthesis accumulate solar energy in the form of various chemical compounds.This energy is distributed within the ecosystem as food among animals. Finally, this energy dissipates in the environment.
lies in degradation and mineralization of a dead organic matter, chemical decomposition of rocks and involving formed minerals in a biological cycle. The dead organic matter decomposes into simple inorganic compounds: carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulfide, methane, ammonia and others which are used again in the initial chain of the cycle.
Phase 2
Biosphere and it`s stability
The biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

In V.I. Vernandsky created an orderly doctrine of biosphere. He understood a thin mantle of the Earth at the interface of the 3 geological spheres- the lithosphere, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere
The hydrosphere is transfused by life up to the deepest oceanic trenche
The life penetrates up to 3 km in a hard part of the Earth(bacteria in the oil deposits)
The lower border of life is related to the increase of temperatureеin the earth interior, the temperature reaches 100 C
at the depth of 3 km
that within their life activities, organisms accumulate selectively atoms of matters dissipated in the nature. One of a characteristic feauture of living matter is teh ability to concentrate chemical elements from diluted solutions. The most active concentrate is microorganisms. Fulfilling this functions induced formation of deposits of natural minerals (chalkstone, limestone etc)
lies is transformation of physical and chemical parameters of the environment(the atmosphere, the litosphere and the hydrosphere) in conditions favourable for life organisms. This functions is a joint results of all three functions reviewed above of the living matter of biosphere.
Energy Flow in Ecosystems

When a zebra eats the grass, it does not obtain all of the energy the grass has (much of it is not eaten)
When a lion eats a zebra, it does not get all of the energy from the zebra (much of it is lost as heat)

The two (2) previous examples of energy transfer show that no organism EVER receives all of the energy from the organism they just ate

Only 10% of the energy from one trophic level is transferred to the next – this is called the 10% law

Trophic Levels
Energy moves from one organisms to another when it is eaten

Each step in this transfer of energy is know as a trophic level
The main trophic levels are producers, consumers, and decomposers

Food Chains
The energy flow from one trophic level to the other is know as a food chain
A food chain is simple and direct
It involves one organism at each trophic level
Primary Consumers – eat autotrophs (producers)
Secondary Consumers – eat the primary consumers
Tertiary Consumers – eat the secondary consumers
Decomposers – bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and recycle the material back into the environment

Food Web
The total mass of the organic matter at each trophic level is called biomass

Biomass is just another term for potential energy – energy that is to be eaten and used.
The transfer of energy from one level to another is very (10% Law)

Ecological Pyramid
An ecological pyramid shows the relationship between consumers and producers at different trophic levels in an ecosystem

Shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained at each trophic level

The Pyramid shows which level has the most energy and the highest number of organisms

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