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Krliux Valdés

on 29 August 2013

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Classical or traditional grammar
It increases knowledge of how languages operate.
It provides the teacher with a useful indirect source of guidance.

Teachers who wish to maintain a balanced view of linguistics should not overlook the fact that traditional grammar has many useful virtues. The traditional handbooks provided an array of terms and distinctions which most of us used in learning to talk about our own language, and which many people continue to find serviceable throughout their lives.

Allen and Widdowson, 1975
Discourse analysis
It is how meaning is generated among sentences.
Meaning of sentences change according to the context in which they are used.
Different communicative purposes.
The positions of utterances within the discourse affect the meaning of the discourse.
It has had importance while checking ESP materials.
Functional/Notional grammar
Functions are concerned with social behavior (intention)
advising, describing, warning, etc.
Notions reflect the way in which the human mind thinks.
time, gender, location, number, frequency, etc.
Functionally based syllabuses has been strong in ESP.
Ss' needs are not to learn the basic grammar, but rather to learn how to use the knowledge they already have.
Structural and functional can complement each other.
Language variation and register analysis
Language is used for communication, so it varies.
Language varies according to the context of use (formal, informal, written, spoken, self-sufficient or context-dependent)
ESP is based on register analysis.
Determine the formal characteristics of various registers in order to establish a basis for the selection of syllabus items.
There are language forms that tend to be used more frequently in one context than in another.
Transformational generative grammar
Language should be seen as a reflection of human thought patterns.
There must be two levels of meaning: deep and surface
John is easy to please.
John is eager to please.
Competence and performance are two concepts which influence ESP.
"Multangular tower"
We need to make a distinction between the performance repertoire of the target situation and the competence required to cope with it. The competence, providing, as it does, the generative basis for further learning...is the proper concern of ESP.
Structural linguistics
Language is described in terms of syntagmatic structures which carry the fundamental propositions and notions.
Use of substitution tables to explain grammatical patterns.
Structural syllabus (simple to complex structures)
It provides a systematic description of the core of the language.
It may fail to provide the learner with an understanding of the communicative use of the structures.
Noam Chomsky
Language can also be seen from the point of view of function.
Communicative competence.
Set of rules for formulating grammatically correct sentences and knowledge of what to talk, when to speak, with whom, where, etc.
Communication involves gestures, postures, eye contact, etc.
Dell Hymes
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