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The Tempest: Group Presentation
Transcript of The Tempest: Group Presentation
Group Presentation By Alvin Qiu, Andrew Gu, Rashad Ajward and David Ng “A friend to all is a friend to none.” Quotes “All men by nature desire knowledge." “Character may almost be called the most effective means of persuasion.” “Courage is a mean with regard to fear and confidence.” So who are these quotes by? Aristotle Who is he? Born: 384 BC
Died: 322 BC A Greek philosopher
Wrote on variety subjects
Despite not being primarily a mathematician, he made important contributions by systemizing deductive logic/reasoning
Other subjects include: physics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology
His philosophy had a long-lasting influence on the development of all Western philosophical theories Life/Biography Born in Stagirus/Stagira/Stageirus in Chalcidice
His mother’s name was Phaestis
His father, Nicomachus, was a medical doctor and a personal physician to King Amyntas III of Macedon
Trained and educated as a member of the aristocracy Traditionally, medical skills were kept secret and handed down from father to son
Aristotle’s father died when he was about 10 years old
- Brought up Proxenus of Atarneus (Uncle or family friend)
- Learned Greek, rhetoric, and poetry By the age of 18, he went to Plato’s Academy in Athens
Plato teacher was Socrates
Remained there for about 20 years
Was both a student and a teacher
A supposed reason for leaving is due to political problems Amyntas, the king of Macedonia, died around 369 BC
A couple of years before Aristotle went to Athens
Two of his sons, Alexander II and Perdiccas III, each reigned Macedonia for a time
The kingdom suffered from both internal disputes and external wars
In 359 BC the third son, Philip II came to the throne
Skilful tactics (both military and political) to allowed Macedonia a period of internal peace
In addition, they expanded by victories over the surrounding areas Philip II of Macedon Speusippus Plato's Academy Left Athens and travelled and worked with others
Xenocrates, a teacher at Plato’s Academy
Theophrastus, a student at Plato’s Academy
Travelled to the island of Lesbos and received Hermias of Atarneus
Aristotle developed a strong interest in anatomy and the structure of living things as well as zoology and biology Atarneus Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter (or niece) Pythias
Had a daughter also named Pythias
After a Persian attack, Hermias was captured and executed Invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander the Great in 343 BC
Appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon
- There he tutor two other future kings
- Ptolemy and Cassander Alexander the Great By 335 BC he had returned to Athens
Established his own school there known as the Lyceum
Conducted courses at the school for the next 12 years
Aristotle’s wife died and he became involved with Herpyllis
Had a son named Nicomachus This period in Athens is when many believe he composed/wrote most of his works
He studied almost all possible subject of the time and made huge contributions to them After the death of Alexander the Great, anti-Macedonian feeling in Athens occurred again
Prompted Aristotle to leave the city
Went to his mother's family estate in Chalcis
In 322 BC, died in Euboea, Greece The Death of Socrates Lebos The Poetics An analysis of Tragedy dramas and even so much as a guideline for all Tragedies Tragedy is a “mimesis,” in other words an imitation, of an action according to “the law of probability or necessity.”
Story was shown rather than told.
Use of cause-and-effect chains.
Instil pity and fear Quality of the Tragedy is based on six important parts
Spectacle Plot The plot had to be “whole.”
Beginning, middle and end
Plot must be “complete” (unity of action)
NO conicidences The plot had to possess both a quantitative (length and complexity) and a qualitative (seriousness and significance) magnitude
The plot could either be simple or complex.
Simple plots are catastrophes.
Complex plots involve reversal of intentions and recognition Character The protagonist should be renowned and prosperous Other aspects of traits include:
”Good or fine”
“Fitness of character”
“True to life”
“Necessary or probable”
“True to life” Thought Speeches must clearly show the character’s personality and personal motivations
Continuously repeat the themes of the play Diction The expression of the meaning in words
Refers to different writing styles Metaphors are a “mark of a genius, for to make good metaphors implies an eye for resemblances” Melody ‘Song, or melody, is fifth, and is the musical element of the chorus’ Music in a play should be fully integrated into the play Spectacle ‘Spectacle is last, for it is least connected with literature; “the production of spectacular effects depends more on the art of the stage machinist than on that of the poet”’ Ending ‘The end of the tragedy is a katharsis (purgation, cleansing) of the tragic emotions of pity and fear.’ In the end of the tragedy, the excess of pity and fear developed throughout the play is purged, leading to a “healthy” proportion. The Classical
Unities The Classical Unities - Were found in The Poetics
- Very prominent and highly important to use
- 3 rules that Aristotle wrote for writing tragedies
The unity of action: the play should have one main story which it follows from start to finish. There should be no subplots (other stories worked into the first one).
The unity of place: the stage should represent only one location, and not require scene changes to shift from place to place.
The unity of time: the action of a play should take place fluidly, without jumping forward. This is sometimes interpreted as meaning that a play must take place within a time scale of 24 hours. However Aristotle only insisted on the Unity of Action, in his book though he hinted at the Unity of Time stating a play should occur over one revolution of time Pierre Corneille Unity of place was suggested by Pierre Corneille (Father of French Tragedy)
Wrote the famous play Le Cid (didn’t follow the 3 unities)
First one to suggest that Aristotle’s Unities were merely suggestions and not strict rules
Very controversial at that time because the French playwrights worshipped the 3 unities as well as the Italians Ben Johnson He was an Elizabethan writer who was also writing in the time of Shakespeare
They were very close friends – may have influenced each other’s work
His play Volpone quotes: “The rules of time, place, persons he observeth
From no needful rule he swerth” This shows Johnson’s point of view on the 3 unities and he doesn’t feel the need to follow them Possible Reasons For The Unities Unity of Place
Ancient Greeks would not have had much technology
Makes it difficult to change set quickly
Unity of Time
A way of saying cut to the chase, plays should be concise
Unity of Action
Also ties in with the Unity of Place
Many different plots using the same background and set would confuse the audience The point of the 3 unities was to keep the audience interested How Can They Be Applied To The Tempest? The other play was named The Comedy of Errors
Written very early into Shakespeare’s career
This shows that he was aware of the 3 unities during his career he just chose to ignore them The Tempest is one of only 2 plays that Shakespeare wrote that follows Aristotle’s 3 unities He didn’t use the 3 unities again until his very last play
The Comedy of Errors wasn’t very popular
He chose to ignore them, but in his last play he wanted to show that he could write a popular “proper play” He needed the 3 unities to bring back reality into his magical play Unity of Action Unity of Place Unity of Time Was added in the 16th century Lodovico Castelvetro, the Renaissance Italian translator of The Poetics
Expanded on by the French dramatist Jean de la Taille. The unity of place was not actually in the Poetics Lodovico Castelvetro There are only a few points of evidence for him to have demanded unity of time
Even less points of evidence for unity of place in Aritotle’s The Poetics.
However, was adamant about the use of unity of action.
Aristotle’s decision to not specifically add the unity of time and place most likely had to do with the fact that he based The Poetics on Greek Tragedies, which would frequently violate these rules. Aristotle never writes something so restricting. All, or at least most of the locations of the play should be in walking distance of each other, such as a town.
The most common setting for an ancient Greek Tragedy would be right in front of the hero’s home, so that other characters came from the streets, and the hero’s family came from inside the house. - Stressed that the play should not occupy more space than what can realistically be arranged on stage Shakespeare usually ignored this rule, for he wanted variety rather than being restricted by the unities.
In Antony and Cleopatra, the scene is quickly moved from Rome to Egypt The stage should not represent more than one place. Sometimes, Shakespeare applied this rule.
Used in one of his earliest plays, The Comedy of Errors
Used also in his last play, The Tempest
The setting takes place on an island, and all characters eventually meet together by foot. Miranda watches the ship and all aboard as it suffers Prospero’s rage, represented by the tempest. “O, I have suffer’d/With those that I saw suffer: a brave vessel….” (Act 1, Scene 2, Line 5) Prospero and Miranda’s house or place of residence must therefore be near the coast for Miranda to see a ship Prospero has Ariel separate Ferdinand from Antonio, Gonzalo, Sebastion, Alonso, and others, but he places them so that they are close to his own residence. Prospero: “Why, that’s my spirit. But was not this nigh shore?”
Ariel: “Close by, my master.”
(Act 1, Scene 2, Line 216-218) Presentation Topic Aristotle and the Classical Unities 3. Briefly, who was Aristotle, what is The Poetics, and what are the Classical Unities (also known as the three unities)? How can they be applied to The Tempest? How important were the classics to Elizabethan writers? Prospero’s Revenge Main plot Miranda/Ferdinand Romance plot Trinculo, Stephano, Caliban Comedic plot Prospero Miranda Ferdinand Caliban Trinculo Stephano Prospero Alonso Miranda Ferdinand Caliban Trinculo/Stephano Antonio Sebastian The figure Time appear on stage at the beginning of Act 4
Announces that the play is fast-forwarding sixteen years and changing the location from Sicily to Bohemia The Winter's Tale The Classical Unities may seem a bit restricting
Ordinarily, a play gets around this difficulty by disregarding the unities
In The Tempest, however, Shakespeare uses Ariel to overcome this limitation Ariel’s powers cut the length of the play •“At least two glasses. The time ‘twixt six and now
must by us both be spent most preciously” - Prospero 1.2.240-241 “On the sixth hour, at which time, my lord,
You said your work should cease” - Ariel 5.1.4-5 “Now that my charms are all o'erthrown,
And what strength I have's mine own” - Prospero 5.Epilogue.319-320 "Aristotle - History for Kids!" Kidipede - History for Kids - Homework Help for Middle School. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/philosophy/aristotle.htm>
"Aristotle Biography." Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.gap-system.org/~history/Biographies/Aristotle.html>.
"Aristotle Quotes - BrainyQuote." Famous Quotes at BrainyQuote. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/aristotle.html>.
"The Comedy of Errors the Play by William Shakespeare." WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.william-shakespeare.info/shakespeare-play-comedy-of-errors.htm>.
"The Geek's Guide to the Three Unities." PhilipStripling.com. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.philipstripling.com/cc/GeekMovieGuide/unities.html>.
"Jean Racine (1639-1699)." Imagi-nation.com. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.imagi-nation.com/moonstruck/clsc56.html>.
"The Maxims of Horace." TheatreHistory.com. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.theatrehistory.com/ancient/horace002.html>.
"Pierre Corneille (1606-1684)." Imagi-nation.com. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.imagi-nation.com/moonstruck/clsc57.html>.
"Pierre Corneille." TheatreHistory.com. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.theatrehistory.com/french/corneille001.html>.
Ray, Ratri. "William Shakespeare's The Tempest." Google Books. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://books.google.ca/books?id=ahpx7-DSWzgC&pg=PA128&lpg=PA128&dq=unity of place in association with the tempest&source=bl&ots=roUWcwlVxr&sig=bvFjazMujEilBwK4DZaY7KXAz_I&hl=en&ei=qTBnTeq3N8eugQejyv3LCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false>.
"Turbulence Resolved The Tempest." Forside / Front Page. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.mhskanland.net/page50/page40/page26/page37/page37.html>.
"The Unities." TheatreHistory.com. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.theatrehistory.com/misc/watt001.html>.
"Victor Hugo." Www.kirjasto.sci.fi. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://kirjasto.sci.fi/vhugo.htm>. Works Cited Thanks for watching! Individual Work Alvin Qiu Andrew Gu Rashad Ajward David Ng Research, work and presenting on Aristotle
Research and work on The Classical Unities
Reasearch, work and presenting the Unity of Time
Harassing group members for work
Gathering work, finding pictures and putting together the ENTIRE Prezi alone... Research, work and presenting on the Poetics
Research and work on The Classical Unities
Reasearch, work and presenting the Unity of Place Research, work and presenting on the The Classical Unities
Reasearch, work and presenting the Unity of Action Research, work and presenting on the Elizabethan writers The Importance to Elizabethan Writers The 3 unities were not well known
It was translated by the French from Greek to French in the 17th century
Many French playwrights used them
- Pierre Corneille
- Jean Racine
- Moliere The 3 unities were not used in outside of France
The 3 unities were not of much use to the English (didn’t care)
Shakespeare did not use the 3 unities Shakespeare He may have needed subplots to advance characters or more time to advance the plot to make it more interesting
2 plays used the 3 unities
The Comedy of Errors and The Tempest
He may have been pushed by others such as Ben Johnson to write in the “proper” way The Tempest