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Natural Resources

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Kiran Veluvolu

on 19 June 2014

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Transcript of Natural Resources

What are natural resources ?
Why are natural resources running out at such a rapid rate ?
What Are The Major Factors Leading To This Issue ?
World Population Growth
Material Economy
Ecological Footprints
The "Big Four" BRIC Countries
Natural Resources
Natural resources are materials or substances such as minerals, forests, air, water, fossil fuels, fertile land, etc. that occur in
and can be used for economic gain.
The earth is a beautiful place that has many useful
natural resources. But they are under a great threat as
started the
urban revolution
World Population Growth
The great exponential
in the
world population
is continuously putting a
high demand
on the natural resources and land space.
It is estimated that by the year
, the world population will grow so high that all of the earths
habitable land will be occupied by people of various ages. Many habitats will be
and majority of the resources will be all
wiped out
Demands include
for new
that come from deforestation, more
etc to
those houses, food, clothing and many more.
Material Economy
Types of Natural Resources
There are two primary types of natural resources.
Renewable Resources:
can be defined as any natural resource (as wood or solar energy) that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time
Non-renewable Resources:

can be defined as any natural resource (as coal or oil) from the Earth that exists in limited supply and cannot be replaced if it is used up; also, any natural resource that cannot be replenished by natural means at the same rates that it is consumed
As years pass, the
Non-renewable Resources

are in extreme danger as they are so sawed after by man because they are big "money makers" as they currently power majority of the world.
Causes of Natural Resource Depletion
Over consumption / Excessive or unnecessary use of resources
Over population
Inequitable distribution of resources.
Technological and industrial development.
Mining for oil and minerals.
Drainage of wetlands / aquifier depletion
Deforestation and forest fires.
Slash and Burn.
Pollution or contamination of natural resources.
Habitat degradation and
Many more...
can be defined as a modern movement for the protection of the consumer against useless, inferior, or dangerous products,
misleading advertising
, unfair pricing, etc.
This basically means that people in this generation are buying
that they don't actually need, (shopping for a pair of shoes but end up buying 3 because of their
style, discount, colour,
etc) but are fooled into desiring it, mostly through advertising. This puts high demands on natural resources because these
need to be manufactured through many different resources and buying them just encourages more of the product to be manufactured by the companies to gain profits.
Ecological Footprints
Material economy in other terms is
where an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by
private individuals
or corporations, especially as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned (government) means of wealth.
This revolves around the concept of
"Free trade"
. The ability to start your own business and
with other companies.This forces the companies to expand and make more money to stay on top of the
so they
more and more natural resources to make their products and process them through extraction, production, distribution, and consumption.
Majority of the companies are
money oriented
and don't realize how much damage they are doing to the environment. They don't really care about the natural resources running out and are very good at
the natural resource depletion with the public.
For ex: competition between Lazy Boy furniture store and Leons Furniture store.

An ecological footprint is the impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the
amount of land required
their use of natural resources.
Almost everything that an average person in a city buys or does to sustain their life weather it is consuming food, entertainment, etc. it goes into their ecological footprint because these things at some point go through processing which requires
vast amount
of natural resources.
a television set not only needs great amounts of natural resources such as minerals and metals to be manufactured, but also needs constant supply of energy from power plants that comes mainly from burning of fossil fuels. All of this accounts into one's ecological footprint.
It is estimated that if every person in the world lives like a average American, we will need
5 planet earth's
to sustain life and to provide all the sufficient resources
The "Big Four" BRIC Countries
The BRIC countries are
which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly
economic development.

are the world's dominant suppliers of
manufactured goods and services
and respectively,
are similarly dominant as suppliers of
raw materials
necessary to manufacture goods.
These countries have so many resources that
of the products in the world are manufactured in these places.
For ex:
Almost all of the electronics in the world are manufactured in China. "Since 1978, India is the primary center for pharmaceutical and medicine production in the world" -Dr. Oz, Both China and India are the world leading manufacturers in
industry. Brazil and Russia
majority of the world's natural resources
It is estimated that by year
, these
four economies
would be
than most of the current major economic powers.
Why are our precious renewable resources, water and air becoming increasingly
to us ?
The biggest reason for water and air intoxication is
caused by us humans.
Water intoxication occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of
amounts of
to the water.
The sources of water intoxication are categorized as being a
point source
or a
non-source point
Point sources
occur when the polluting substance is emitted
into the waterway. A pipe depositing toxic chemicals from an industry directly into a river or lake is an example.
non-point source
occurs when there is
of pollutants into a waterway, for instance when fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream by surface runoff.
What Is Water Intoxication ?

Toxic substance
is a chemical pollutant that is
a naturally occurring substance in aquatic ecosystems.
The greatest contributors to toxicity in water systems are
herbicides, pesticides and industrial compounds
Industrial compounds are usually dumped into rivers and lakes for
disposal especially in developed countries because it costs money for toxic substances to be safely disposed.
Agricultural compounds such as pesticides make their way into water systems through
run off
from rain, or simply leaking down into ground water systems.
Organic Substances
Organic pollution occurs when an excess of organic matter, such as manure or sewage, enters the water. When organic matter increases in a water reservoir, the number of decomposers will
These decomposers grow
and use a great deal of oxygen during their growth. Lack of oxygen can
aquatic organisms.
As the aquatic organisms die, they are broken down by decomposers which leads to further depletion of the oxygen levels. (The impact of this oxygen depletion will be explained in

Temperature increase of water
Thermal pollution
can occur when water is used as a coolant near a power or industrial plant and then is returned to the aquatic environment at a
higher temperature
than it was originally.
This increase in temperature can lead to a
in the dissolved oxygen level in the water while also increasing the biological demand of aquatic organisms for oxygen.
This further leads to the
of aquatic life as there is no oxygen to sustain them. As the dead life is decomposed by decomposers, more oxygen will be depleted and many toxic byproducts are produced such as
which is extremely toxic if ingested in high concentrations and causes
Ecological Pollution
This is not a major cause of water intoxication but is important to discuss since it does happen
Ecological pollution occurs when chemical, organic or thermal pollution are caused by nature rather than by human activity.
Examples include volcanic eruptions, floods mixing lots of wastes in water resources.
Farms often use large amounts of herbicides and pesticides, both of which are
pollutant that can build up over time.
Farms also frequently use large amounts of chemical fertilizers that are washed into the waterways and
the water supply and the life within it.
Fertilizers can increase the amounts of
in the water, which can lead to the process of
Unsafe disposal
and manufacture of pesticides and fertilizers is a
major issue
in developing countries.
Industries and Businesses
and sewage generated by
can get into the water supply, introducing large organic pollutants into the ecosystem.
Many industrial and power plants use
to dispose of waste heat. The resulting hot water can cause thermal pollution.
Water can become contaminated with
materials from industry, mine sites and abandoned hazardous waste sites.
In undeveloped countries, the sewage is usually
treated, but
dumped into the sea or water bodies. This is
dangerous because they contaminate the environment and water bodies and bring many deadly
to people.
Acid Rains
Acid rains are caused when the burning of fossil fuels emits
sulfur dioxide
into the atmosphere.
The sulfur dioxide reacts with the water in the atmosphere, creating
which contains
sulfuric acid
As acid precipitation falls into lakes, streams and ponds it can lower the overall
of the waterway,
vital plant life, thereby affecting the whole food chain.
It also leach heavy metals from the soil into the water,
its toxicity.
Sewage generated by houses or runoff from septic tanks into nearby waterways, introduce
organic pollutants
that can cause
Fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides used for
lawn care
in households can runoff and
. Home fertilizers have same effects as agricultural fertilizers.
Improper disposal of hazardous chemicals such as toilet cleaners down the drain introduce toxic materials into the ecosystem, contaminating the water supplies.
Leaks of oil and antifreeze from a car on a driveway can be washed off by the
into nearby waterways, toxicating them.
Other Major Sources
Hormones, birth control pills
, etc are dumped into sewers daily and this is increasing the
levels in the water systems. This is not a toxic issue but it is impacting the growth of children recently giving them characteristics of opposite sex.
Cleaning supplies
such as strong acids and bases are usually dumped straight into the sewer systems from houses. This
of the water as well as deposit large amounts of heavy metals making water toxic.
In cold countries, the
used to melt the snow often melts and runs off into ground water and other freshwater resources (also other things such as car coolants, oil, etc) increasing the
of the water which in the end kills some delicate freshwater species.
Some pollutants
in water. This material is called particulate matter. Some suspended pollutants
settle in the tissues
of animals.
What Is Air Intoxication / Pollution
Air pollution
occurs when
gases, dust particles, fumes, smoke or odour
are introduced and contaminate the atmosphere in a way that makes it
to humans, animals and plant life.
Primary pollutants
are those gases or particles that are pumped into the air to make it unclean. They include
carbon monoxide
automobile exhausts
sulfur dioxide
from the
of coal.
Secondary pollutants
occur when pollutants in the air mix up in a chemical reaction, they form an even more dangerous chemical.
Photochemical smog
is an example of this, and is a secondary pollutant.

Paper, food, plastic, rubber, metallic and aluminum waste are being
deposited into the sea and other water bodies in
countries. All these waste types take time to decompose and also greatly affect the
of marine life as well as humans
Ocean and Marine Dumping
What Are The Causes Of Air Intoxication
Emissions From Factories and Industries
Stationary sources
such as waste incinerators, manufacturing industries, furnaces, power plants, and other types of fuel-burning devices emit high levels of
carbon monoxide, organic compounds, greenhouse gases,
into the air.
This is a major issue in almost all
across the world.
The air pollution in Toronto, Canada is so
that it can be easily detected by individuals from far away. (lots of companies, airports, large population, cars, constructions, etc)
Petroleum refineries also release lots of
into the air.
In developing and poor countries, traditional
biomass burning
is the major source of air pollutants; traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung
There are
types of sources of air intoication and it is natural or caused by humans.
Natural sources
of pollutants include forest fires, wind-blown dust and volcanoes.
Human sources
include emissions from fossil fuel burning (oil, gas and coal), wood burning and stirred-up dust from vehicles or construction.
The amount of human sources of emissions outweigh the natural sources by a
huge ratio
so this presentation will be focused more on human impacts and the major sources.
Burning of Fossil Fuels
After the industrial age and World War Era,
has become a
part of our lives. Cars and heavy duty trucks, trains, shipping vessels and airplanes all work on
fossil fuels
Emissions from automobile engines contain both
secondary pollutants
. This is a major cause of pollution, and one that is very difficult to manage. This is because we, humans rely heavily on vehicles and engines for transporting people, good and services.
Innovative technology have been recently coming out with all electric cars, hybrids, etc. But the problem with these technologies is that they still
an energy source such as an electrical outlet to
them and this electricity does come from power plants that burn fossil fuels so it still accounts into a persons ecological footprint.
Fumes from car exhaust contain dangerous gases such as
carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons
. On their own, they cause great harm to people who breath them. Additionally, they react with environmental gases to create further toxic gases and acid rain.
Crop dusting, fumigating homes, household cleaning products or painting supplies, over the counter insect/pest killers, room fresheners, fertilizer dust emit
harmful chemicals
into the air and cause pollution.
In many case, when we use these chemicals at home or offices with no or little ventilation, we may fall ill and develop several
respiratory diseases
if we breathe them for long periods of time.
Many household and industrial appliances use
such as refrigerators, freezers, etc. emit
that aid in depletion of the ozone layer and also pollute the air.
Substances such as
in walls for older houses,
in non-stick cooking utensils, etc are known to causes serious
neuromuscular problems
to humans and animals
Household and Farming Chemicals
Forest Fires (Man made)
Due to the high exponential rate of global population, demand for
habitable land
is also increasing at the same rate
In developed countries, vast amounts of forest space is destroyed on a
daily basis

many animals and their habitats and the primary, most economically cheap way in doing so is by starting forest fires to
the land.
Emissions from forest fires can travel large distances, affecting air quality and human health far from the originating fires. These emissions include:
particulate matter, carbon monoxide and dioxide, atmospheric mercury, ozone-forming chemicals,
volatile organic compounds.
Military Resources
Military resources such as
nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry
all contribute to air pollution,radioactivity and many other disastrous environmental impacts as seen in
World War II
How Can You Reduce Your Ecological Footprint ?
Drop two

diet coke
cans in every toilet in your house. Overtime, this
reduces the amount of unnecessary water lost into the sewage system.Since the coke cans are
less dense
than water, they will also rise to the top layer of water and does not get in contact with any mechanisms of the toilet.
turning taps off
during brushing teeth, fixing all
leaking taps
, using a
in bath tub and limiting to 2-3 buckets of water per shower will reduce water consumption.
public transit
(during summer), or
simply walk
to get around in a city and avoid driving a car when traveling by yourself. This reduces unwanted waste of already expensive natural resources
Change all the lights in your house to energy efficient,
Energy Star Rated
light bulbs. These use
less energy than traditional incandescent light bulbs.
your thermostat temperatures to around
degrees Celsius during winter, and use
during night. Completely shut off the thermostat during summer. This not only decreases the energy bills, but also reduce our ecological footprint.
Making your home energy efficient by
it with quality materials, etc will also help. Also heat only the rooms that are being used.
For ex:
do not heat basements during winter.
as much as possible
- to buy less and use less. turning off the lights, rain barrels, and taking shorter showers, but also plays a part in composting, low flow toilets, programmable thermostats, carpooling, etc.
- elements of the discarded item are used again. This includes attending garage sales, travel mugs and reusable water bottles, composting, buying from thrift shops, etc.
- discards are separated into materials that may be incorporated into new products. This includes buying products with a high content of post-consumer material, reuse back side of waste paper, etc.
Batteries are used in almost every
in households such as computer mouse, remotes, toys, clocks, etc. Use good quality
rechargeable batteries
so that they not only last for a very long time, but also reduces the amount of metals need to be mined, and also helps
the contamination of substances such as ground water, soil, etc. caused by leaking of old batteries.
Buy food that is
heavily packaged with Styrofoam, plastic wrapping, etc. Instead shop at
farmers markets
where you not only get fresh food, but also reduce packaging waste greatly. To make this even better, use
reusable shopping
bags in order to reduce plastic bags.
Grow your own
fruits and vegetables in the backyard and don't waste food. Combining these actions could reduce your footprint by
. Growing your own fruit and vegetables reduces all the energy and waste which normally goes into getting food from the field to our plates – such as transport, refrigeration and packaging.
such as refrigerator, stove, dishwasher, washing machine, etc. are used in almost every single house all around the world on a
daily basis
. Investing in energy efficient appliances will greatly
energy consumption, bills etc. as well as last for an
extremely long time
If replacing an older vehicle or just buying a new one for a family member, consider the following:
alternative fuel vehicles
such hybrids, electric cars, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, etc. These might seem a little expensive but are extremely environment friendly, produce close to 0 emissions, etc.
sharing vehicles
, giving or getting rides from people that go to the same work places or destinations as you are.
Combine multiple journeys into one, do the weekly shopping in a
single trip
harsh braking, accelerate gently, drive at a steady speed.
Keep tires properly
Travel light
. Carrying unnecessary weight wastes fuel.
Keep your vehicle regularly
Turn the engine
or waiting.
Substances leading to Water Intoxication
Toxic Substances
The graph above shows the great exponential growth in world population in just 200 years from 1800-2000
Linear system of a manufacturing process for a product
Pesticides being sprayed onto crops
A factory dumping hot waste water directly into a water system
Variety of pesticides, fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides commonly used for agricultural practices
Untreated water from a coal power plant directly poured into river in China
A white marble statue corroded by acid rain
Leaked stuff from cars such as engine coolants, engine oil, etc. gets run-off into ground water systems though rain
Chimneys from industries spewing out pollutant gases including sulfur dioxide that aids in acid rain
Cars emitting pollutants from combustion of green house gases
Sprays such as air fresheners and cologne that you have at home are toxic if breathe in large concentrations or over time
"Slash and Burn" practices are being done in developing countries to clear forests in order to create crop lands
Thank You for attending this meeting and hopefully you will continue ensuring and educating about natural resource sustainability and equality around the world which is a global crisis today. If something is not done about this now, the future generations have to deal with all the mess that we have created in just 200 years of earth's lifespan
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