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Courtney Vogelsanger PHONOLOGY In the following data, two allophones,
or systematic variations are considered:
The [p ] and [p].
sip /síp/ [síp]
appear /pír/ [p ír]
pepper /ppr/ [p pr]
space /spés/ [spés]
papaya /ppáıy/ [pp áıy] Hypothesis /p/ becomes [p ] when it occurs before a stressed
vowel. This rule lacks accuracy, because the [p] in
space [spés] is not aspirated even though the
following // is stressed. Differences in the two phonemes The [p ]’s in appear, pepper and papaya precede a stressed vowel and also begin a syllable. The [p] in space does not. Standard notation for writing phonological rules WX/Y___Z Segment W becomes segment X in the following environment when it follows Y and precedes Z Note The symbol $, represents a syllable boundary. Therefore the following notations are used to represent the Aspiration Rule: /p/ [+aspirated]/$____V
/p/ [p ]/$____V Aspiration rule for voiceless
stops such as /p/, /t/, and /k/ [+stop] [+aspirated] /$____V
[voice] Vowel Lengthening
heat /hit/ [hit] heed /hid /[hi:d]
seize /siz/ [si:z] cease /sis/ [sis]
keel /kil/ [k i:l] leave/liv/ [li:v]
leaf /lif/ [lif]
In the following, data /i/ has two allophones, [i] and [i:]
A colon after a vowel indicates lengthening. Examples More Accurate Rule Hypothetically, the consonant to the right of the vowel causes it to lengthen.
Example: In the words heat, leaf, and cease, the vowels are short. Each one is followed by a voiceless consonant ([t], [f], and [s] are [-voice-]). Whereas in heed, leave, seize, and keel, the vowels are long. Each followed by a voiced consonant ([d], [v], [z], and [l] are [+voice]). Therefore a more accurate rule would be /i/ becomes [i:] when it precedes a voiced consonant. Standard Notation /i/ [i:]____C
All vowels become lengthened when they precede a voiced consonant.
[+voice] Vowel Nasalization There are no nasalized vowel phonemes in English. A vowel becomes phonetically nasalized when it is next to a nasal consonant (m, n, ).
Assimilation occurs when a vowel becomes more like an adjacent nasal consonant by becoming nasalized itself.
Flapping Flapping is a special case of neutralization. The following data represents how /t/ and /d become an alveolar flap ().
t/ and /d/ become // when in between
two vowels, the first vowel stressed and the second unstressed.
ride /ráıd/ [raid] writer /raiter/ [ráır]
dire /dáır/ [dáır] lender /lndr/ [lndr]
rider /ráıdr/ [ráır] Easter /ístr/ [ístr]
write /ráıt/ [ráıt] attack /tǽk/ [tǽk]
tire /táır/ [táır] adobe /adóbi/ [adóbi]
Note that /t/ and /d/ never become /r/ when they began or end a word. Of the above words only rider and writer become /r/, since they both have vowels in the middle. Also the /t/ and /d/ are between vowels, the first one stressed and the second unstressed.
[r] / V _________ V
[+stress] [-stress] Rule The following example shows the effect on a phonetic form when two phonological rules are applied.
Phonetic Form: /p této/
Aspiration: pét éto
Flapping: pét éro
The order in which these two rules are applied will not affect the condition needed for either rule to operate.
However in other situations, the order in which two rules are applied will make a difference. Phonemic Phonetic
handball /handbol/ [hmbol
handbag /hndbag/ [hmbag]
handmade /handmed/ [hammed]
Each phonetic form shows two changes
First change: A segment has been deleted.
Second change: There has been place assimilation. Phonetic forms in some dialects of English
(data from Katamba 1989:132) Cluster Reduction must apply first to create
the environment for nasal assimilation Consonant Cluster Reduction A consonant deletion rule
applies when each of the
phonetic forms has had
one segment deleted. Nasal Assimilation
The nasal segment in each has changed from /n/ to /m/. (/n/ is an alveolar and /m/ is a bilabial segment). In each case the /m/ is followed by a bilabial segment, either[b]or another [m]. In other words place assimilation has taken place. Generalization
Phonemic form /hndbl/
Nasal Assimilation hmbl
Phonetic form [hmbl]
The two rules will have to be applied in a particular order to derive the target form. Sample 2: (The opposite order)
Phonemic form /haӕndbaɔl/
Nasal Assimilation /n/ will not assimilate to /b/, since they are not adjacent.
Phonetic form [hӕmbɔl] Summary Phonology is theoretically based upon the physiology
of the vocal tract, and uses various concepts and phonological rules. The phonemic alphabet can be supplemented by diacritics allowing us to represent allophones. These concepts help us represent systematic psychological patterns underlying the production of speech sounds.
Phonology is the study of the sound
system of language, or the rules that
CV Phonology example #5 The vowels in the word cab and cad are longer
than the same vowels in cap and cat.
This shows that two segments can be the same
on one level of representation but different on
CV Phonology example #3 The words pea, see, me, and key all have the
same vowel, even though the vowel in each
word is spelled differently.
This shows that a single segment can be
represented by a variety of spellings.
CV Phonology example #1 The first sound in the word fight is created by
bringing together the top teeth and the bottom lip,
and then blowing air between them.
This shows that we use our vocal tract to produce speech.
CV Phonology example #4 P and b are alike because they are both
pronounced with the lips; p and k are
different because k is not pronounced with
This shows that segments are made up
of smaller units called distinctive
features. CV Phonology example #2 The word war is created with one continuous motion of the lungs, tongue, lips, and so on, yet we perceive this motion as a series of three separate speech sounds, w-a-r.
This shows that words are physically one continuous motion but are psychologically a series of discrete units called segments.
CV EXAMPLES Examples 2 and 3 can be used to
substantiate a phonemic alphabet,
which is a system of transcription
in which one symbol uniquely
represents one segment.
CV Speech is created by pushing air from the lungs up through the vocal tract and manipulating several variables at the same time. These variables include:
whether or not the vocal cords are vibrating
whether the velum is raised or lowered
whether or not the air flow is stopped or facing an obstacle at some point between the larynx and the lips.
CV CV The vocal tract is important to the
study of phonology for two reasons.
First, human beings use the vocal tract to
Second, terms that refer to physical properties
of the vocal tract are used to describe the
psychological units of phonology
CV The Vocal
Tract Segments When we listen to someone talk, we hear
speech but we perceive segments, or speech
sounds. This is important to understand
because the sound waves produced by the
vocal tract are continuous; however, our
interpretation of these sound waves is discrete.
CV Speech refers to what we are actually doing when
we talk and listen; phonology refers to the segments
and rules in terms of which we organize our
interpretation of speech.
In other words, speech refers to physical phenomena, and
phonology refers to mental phenomena.
CV Phonemic Alphabet These vowel phonemes are
described in terms of the following physical
CV CV Phonemic symbols for
consonants These consonant phonemes are described
in terms of the following physical dimensions:
-Place of articulation
CV For any articulation related to one
of these consonant phonemes, the
vocal tract is contracted in one of the
-Liquids and Glides
CV Consonants can be divided into
obstruents (stops, fricatives, and
affricates) and sonorants (nasals, liquids,
Stops, fricatives, and affricates come in
voices and voiceless pairs (except for
/h/); nasals, liquids, and glides are all
voiced, as are vowels.
CV Common points of
confusion The specific symbols used in a phonemic
alphabet are of no real theoretical importance.
For example, the symbols /p/ and /b/ in English
be replaced by /1/ and /2/.
2. A number of phonemic
alphabets for English
3. You will see some of the phonemes
of English charted slightly differently
depending upon whose charts you read.
CV 4. The phonemic representation of
the words in a language is not identical for every speaker of that language.
CV 5. Different languages have different sets of
phonemes. English contains phonemes not
found in some other languages and English
lacks phonemes that are found in other
CV Specific properties of a phoneme differ according to its position in a word. This variation can be referred to as allophonic variation. For instance, consider the following words and phrases, each of which contains an instance of the phoneme /t/: Tim, stem, hit, hit me, and Betty. Each of these instances of /t/ differs systematically from the others. These systematic variations of /t/ are called allophones of /t/.
This proves two levels of phonological representation: the phonemic, where phonemes are described, and the phonetic, where allophones of phonemes are described.
CV It is possible that two segments may be both
the same and different at the same time. This is
where the level of representation comes in. By recognizing more than one level, researchers
are able to say that two segments are identical
on one level of representation yet different on
CV Level of
Representation Essential Questions References:
Parker, F., & Riley, K. (2005). Linguistics
for non-linguists: A primer with
exercises (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and
Bacon. 1. Speech refers to the physiological phenomena and phonology refers to mental or psychological phenomena. According to Parker and Riley (2010), emphasis in modern phonology, as it has developed over the last 50 years, has been primarily on the psychological system that underlies production. Why is the actual physical articulation of speech now considered secondary?
2. According to Parker and Riley (2010), the theory of phonology is based indirectly upon the physiology of the vocal tract and uses such concepts as segment and distinctive features among others. What is the advantage of recognizing distinctive features in words versus recognizing patterns in segments? Aspiration Vowel Lengthening Hypothesis Some property of the consonant to the left of the vowel causes it to lengthen.
This rule lacks accuracy because seize [si:z] has a long vowel, whereas cease [sis] has a short vowel, yet in both cases the vowel is preceded by [s]. Therefore the consonant to the left will not affect the length of the vowel since the same consonant precedes both a long and short vowel. Rule Ordering DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR DR CV DR