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Urbanisation in China

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Lucy Bennett

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Urbanisation in China

Located in the Eastern Asian Realm
Location of the issue
Impacts of the issue

+ Westernization:
Increased consumption of globally manufactured goods and services creating a more westernized lifestyle
- Loss of Tradition:
Youths exposure to western culture causing fall off tradition

Wednesday, May 14, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311

Human Geography
The country is divided into 22 provinces, 4 municipalities, 5 autonomous regions and two special administration regions (Hong Kong and Macau).
Beijing is the capital city as well as being the cultural and education centre of China.
The population in the region is mainly centred in Hong Kong and Beijing which have the most economic power in the region.

Shanghai, Beijing and Hong Kong can be recognised as mega-cities.
Extraordinary economic boom creating country’s urbanisation trends
Special Economic Zones
Investment incentives
low taxes
simple land leases
minimal regulation on imports/ exports

1970's ~ 80's Government Economic Reforms
Revolutionised China's position in the global economic market.

Merging of communist policies with capitalist practices.
Two-thirds of the total land area is covered by mountains, hills and plateaus.

The north of the country is separated from Mongolia by the Gobi Desert which stretches 1,295,000 square kilometres.
Low lying plains dominate eastern China which forms one of the largest farming regions. The Pacific Ocean makes up the eastern border. The eastern peninsulas are important geographic elements as this is where several major port cities lie. The Himalayan mountain ranges create the border between western China and India.

Physical Geography
China is situated in south-eastern part of the Eurasian continent on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean.

It is bordered by countries including Afghanistan, India, North Korea, Vietnam and Mongolia.

The land area consists of 9,596,960 square kilometres making it the third largest country, in terms of land size in the world
Mountain ranges:
Many of the highest peaks in the world are situated in the region (Mt Everest lies on border)

River systems:
Important in providing a mode of transportation and irrigation for agricultural purposes.
Huang He River (Yellow River)
Chang Jian River (Yangzi River)
Xi Jiang River (West River).

China has considerable natural resources including the largest rare earth deposits, but also agricultural resources in the form of wheat and rice crops.
The climate of the region can be divided into six zones – subarctic, highland, humid continental, humid subtropical, semiarid and desert. China’s climate is very intermittent depending on the geographic location.
Communism - significant influence and control over land, labour and capital in the area
When the country became a communist nation it rapidly increased in population
The government supported this increase as they believed it would strengthen food security and national defence
Lead to overpopulation
one-child policy:somewhat beneficial in slowing growth but has caused other issues such as a large elderly population in the country
Changing economic base from primarily agriculture to industry
culturally rich with many traditional activities and beliefs that form the structure of everyday life
Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and ancient folk religion.
A modern newspaper for the urban enthusiast
Causes of the ISsue
The scale of urbanisation in China is without precedent in human history. Reasons behind China's fast paced development trends can be understood by considering the history of the area.
After the economic reforms in China, urbanisation increased as young rural inhabitants moved to the cities for better economic opportunities.
This migration pattern is no different to that of other citys and their economic development.

It is the scale and speed at which it has occurred that is phenomenal

Urbanisation can be defined as the migration of rural dwellers to cities
Urbanisation in China
Solutions to the ISsue

Movement to populated areas in search of work or career opportunity


There is a high rate of unemployment in rural areas due to limited work opportunity and higher wages in urban areas
Encourages movement to urban areas


Implemented in 1979
Large aged population which requires significant government spending
Retirement homes

ECONOMIC REFORMS (1970’s ~ 80's)
Low taxes, simple land leases caused rapid industrial expansion (along coast)
Rural areas ignored


Corrupt building permits causes lack of future planning considerations
Industrialization in already concentrated areas


Demand for cheap manufactured goods
A low maintained wage leads to low inflation rate
Slower economy growth


Arid and mountainous land undesirable for development
Coastal urban expansion,ports of trade


- Unemployment:
Economic Growth Rate at 7.6 %
Unemployment rate was 4.1% in 2013
- Health:
Increased fast food has lead to unhealthy diets causing obesity
+ Emergence of a Middle Class:
Increase in minimum wage leads to economic growth
+ Quality of Life:
An increase in income, increase in quality of life (urban residents)

- Accountability:
Corruption in country statistics and limited freedom of speech cause international criticism of the country and government operations
+ International recognition of Education:
Increased incomes for urban dwellers allows more investment into education, leading to international recognition in sustainable economies

+ Growth of consumption:
Increased incomes causes increased spending which leads to emergence of new markets
- Slowdown:
Increasing minimum wage may cause manufacturing production to become more expensive. Thus decreasing foreign investment
- Severe Pollution:
Lack of government regulations and impact assessments for industry sectors.
Lack of environmental protection causing smog, toxic waste, contaminated waterways, habitat and biodiversity loss (Giant Panda)

Increased investment in other areas –
Investment in rural infrastructure
Incentives for agriculture businesses

Regulations –
Land use zoning, local and state gov. regulation
Promotions of environmental protection/sustainability

Diversification of economy –
Supporting businesses
Providing incentives to live outside of major cities
Reducing pressure on urban resources

The Great Firewall of China –
Lack of free-flowing information (censored internet)
Wider access to education resources
Community involvement due to raise awareness

Democracy –
Elections and democratic government, give people more power of choice in decision making

Urban Sustainability Index
Urban financing
Monitoring and Evaluation of Local governments
Research on Mega-Regions - Grants


investigation into China
Timetric, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cagle.com/tag/consumer-spending/https://timetric.com/index/agriculture-value-added-pc-of-gdp-china-wb/
The Economist, 2011
Debacker, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.econosseur.com/2009/02/unemployment-in-china.html
Google Earth, 2014
The Economist, 2011

Bonsen, 2014
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