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Temperate Deciduous Forests

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Candice Davis

on 8 March 2011

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Transcript of Temperate Deciduous Forests

Animals Pileated woodpeckers
Genus: Dryocopus
Species: Pileatus The pileated woodpecker is about 15 inches in length and is one of the largest woodpeckers found in North America. The pileated woodpecker lives in coniferous and deciduous forests. The pileated woodpecker eats insects, fruits and nuts. It uses its sharp bill to pull bark off a tree to expose ant colonies. It uses its long, sticky tongue to poke into holes and drag out the ants. It also digs out large rectangular holes in trees to create roosting and nesting spots and to expose insects! The pileated woodpecker makes its nest in a tree cavity. The female lays four eggs. Both parents incubate the eggs during the day and the male incubates the eggs at night. The chicks hatch after a little more than two weeks and fledge when they are about a month old. White-tailed Deer Genus: Odocoileus
Species: Virginianus The white-tailed deer is tan or brown in the summer and grayish brown in winter. It has white on its throat, around its eyes and nose, on its stomach and on the underside of its tail. The male has antlers. Males weigh between 150 and 300 pounds and females weigh between 90 and 200 pounds. A deer's home range is usually less then a square mile. Deer collect in family groups of a mother and her fawns. When a doe has no fawns, she is usually solitary. Male bucks may live in groups consisting of three or four individuals, except in mating season, when they are solitary. The white-tailed deer is an herbivore or plant eater. Raccoons Genus: Procyon
Species: Lotor The raccoon has gray to brown fur. It has a black mask around its eyes with white fur around the mask. It has a stripe that runs from its forehead to its nose and white fur around its nose. It has a bushy, ringed tail and black paws with five toes. The raccoon's paws look a little like human hands. The raccoon's toes are flexible and it is very good at grabbing, pulling things apart and holding things. The raccoon is omnivorous and opportunistic. Common foods include fruits, nuts berries, insects, rodents, frogs, eggs and crayfish. The raccoons usually walks, but it can run at speeds of up to 15 miles an hour. It is also a good swimmer and often hunts for food in the water. The raccoon has gray to brown fur. It has a black mask around its eyes with white fur around the mask. It has a stripe that runs from its forehead to its nose and white fur around its nose. It has a bushy, ringed tail and black paws with five toes. The raccoon's paws look a little like human hands. The raccoon's toes are flexible and it is very good at grabbing, pulling things apart and holding things. The raccoon is omnivorous and opportunistic. Common foods include fruits, nuts berries, insects, rodents, frogs, eggs and crayfish. The raccoons usually walks, but it can run at speeds of up to 15 miles an hour. It is also a good swimmer and often hunts for food in the water. Opossums Genus: Didelphis
Species: Virginiana The Virginia opossum is North America's only marsupial. A marsupial is an animal with a pouch, like a kangaroo or a koala. The opossum has been around for at least 70 million years and is one of Earth's oldest surviving mammals! The opossum is about the size of a large house cat. It has a triangular head and a long pointed nose. It has grayish fur everywhere but on its ears, feet and tail. Its tail is prehensile. A prehensile tail is adapted for grasping and wrapping around things like tree limbs. The opossum can hang from its tail for a short time. The opossum has opposable hallux. A hallux is like a thumb. The opossum's "thumbs" are on its rear feet. The hallux helps it grasp branches when it climbs. It is omnivorous and eats just about anything, including lots of different plants and animals like fruits, insects, and other small animals. Sometimes, it eats garbage and carrion. Carrion is dead animals. An Virginia opossum female may have as many as 25 babies, but she usually will have between seven to eight. The reason opossums have so many babies to insure that some of them survive. Porcupines Genus: Erethizon
Species: dorsatum The porcupine is a rodent. It has black to brownish-yellow fur and strong, short legs. It has hairless soles on its feet that help it climb trees. It has a round body, small ears and a small head. The most recognizable feature of the porcupine is its quills. A porcupine may have as many as 30,000 quills. The quills are hairs with barbed tips on the ends. Quills are solid at the tip and base and hollow for most of the shaft. The porcupine has quills on all parts of its body, except for its stomach. The longest quills are on its rump. The shortest quills are on its cheeks.
The porcupine uses its quills for defense. The porcupine cannot shoot its quills. When a predator approaches, the porcupine will turn its back, raise the quills and lash out at the threat with its tail. If the porcupine hits an animal with its quills, the quills become embedded in the animal. The common porcupine lives in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests. The common porcupine is an herbivore. It eats leaves, twigs and green plants like skunk cabbage and clover.
Red Foxes Genus: Vulpes
Species: Vulpes The red fox has orangish-red fur on its back, sides and head. It has white fur under its neck and on its chest. It has a long bushy tail tipped in white, pointed black ears and black legs and feet. The red fox eats a wide variety of foods. It is an omnivore and its diet includes fruits, berries and grasses. It also eats birds and small mammals like squirrels, rabbits and mice. A large part of the red fox's diet is made up invertebrates like crickets, caterpillars, grasshoppers, beetles and crayfish. Except for breeding females, the fox doesn't usually use a den. Sometimes it will sleep in the open, wrapping its bushy tail around its nose to stay warm. When it does use a den, it will usually find an abandoned rabbit or marmot den instead of making its own den. Plants The White Oak tree can grow from 80 to 100 feet tall ,3 to 4 feet in diameter around the trunk and can spread from 50 to 80 feet. The Oak tree grows upright and its bark is whitish gray . The life span of the Oak tree, if undisturbed is 500 to 600 years old. The Oak tree's leaves have 7 to 9 rounded points which resemble finger like lobes.The white Oak tree is valued for its timber products such as furniture, flooring and pallets, cabinet making, barrel making, interior finishes, and for heavy construction. The Oak tree also produces acorns which are a food source for wildlife. Genus: Quercus
Species: alba Oak Tree Lime Tree Genus: Tilia
Species: X europaea The Lime Tree is a tall, stately tree, which grows in the deciduous forests of Europe, the British Isles, and the USA. In the USA it is known as a linden tree. The tree can grow to a height of 120-130 ft (25 m). Bushy side shoots grow along the trunk from near the ground. The lower branches arch out, giving the tree an upside-down pyramid look. The common lime has been used as a home remedy for colds, flu, coughs, epilepsy and indigestion. Beech Tree Genus: Fagus
Species: grandifolia The American beech is a tall and wide tree. The mature tree size is anywhere from 90 to 100 feet tall, and spreads 50 to 70 feet. The bark that grows on the tree is very smooth, pale and gray. The growth buds have a yellow tinge, looking a little like a bullet. The leaves are bright green and are about three inches in length. They start wide, and then get smaller and smaller, until they come to a point. The leaves have distinct, strong veins and toothed edges. The American Beech tree produces a lot of paper. The animals that feed on the nuts that grow on this tree are: the opossum, black bears, white-tailed deer, rabbits, ruffed grouse, red and gray squirrels, flying foxes, porcupines and others. The American Beech tree helps people because the nuts that fall off the tree can be harvested and sold for food. Birch Tree Genus: Betula
Species: papyrifera The White Birch is a small to medium sized deciduous tree which grows to 70 or 80 feet in height. As far as trees go it doesn't live very long, only about 140 years. Small hear-shaped leaves are found at the ends of drooping twigs and branches. The paper birch has both male and female flowers called catkins. These turn into little winged nutkins, which ripen in early August to mid September. The wings help the seeds to fly away from the parent tree so there won't be competition for food and water. You can identify this tree by its white bark which peels easily and is marked by narrow horizontal stripes. White birch trees can either have one slender stem or several stems. The bark is often used as a fire starter because it burns even when its wet. Important fact: Native Americans also used the bark to cover their canoes. They also used it to make baskets, baby carriers, mats, torches and moose calls. Because the wood was strong and flexible it was made into spears, bows and arrows, snowshoes and sleds. The wood is now used for building lumber to make veneer, pulpwood and plywood. Syrup, wine, beer, and medicinal tonics are made from the sap. Northern Arrowwood Tree Genus: Viburnum
Species: recognitum These plants have dark green, oval deciduous leaves which grow opposite each other on the stem. The tips of the leaves are pointed and the bottoms are rounded or heartshaped. The leaves are about 4 inches long and 3 inches across. Northern Arrowwood is different from other viburnums because its leaves have big spiky edges, but its surface is smooth. It has small white to pink flowers in flat-topped clusters about 4 inches across. The bark of Northern Arrowwood is grey and smooth. This shrub can sometimes grow to fifteen feet in height. The fruits of the arrowwood are fleshy and blue-black in color about 1/2 inch across. They are a favorite food of Ruffed Grouse and chipmunks. Deer love to eat the leaves and stems. The shoots were once used by Native Americans for arrow shafts. Shagbark Hickory Tree Genus: Carya
Species: ovata The Shagbark Hickory tree has an ashy gray bark similar to birch trees except its bark separates into long strips, which give the trunk it's shaggy look. The Shagbark Hickory tree is tall and straight and can grow to about 100 feet tall. The Shagbark Hickories branches can spread to 25 feet, the lower branches somewhat droop while the upper branches are upright. The branches in the middle are just about horizontal. The wood of this tree is strong and tough. The Shagbarks leaves are compound and alternate, with five or seven broad, toothed leaflets. The leaflets can be smooth or hairy and can be up to 10 inches long and 5 inches broad. The Shagbark Hickory tree has long taprooms which grow straight down into the ground to help the tree get extra water if there is a drought. The Shagbark Hickory tree has many uses, some of them include: sports equipment, furniture, or as a smoke wood for meats. Temperate Deciduous Forests The temperate forests of the world play a fundamental role in the overall ecological balance of nature. These forests support trees and other types of vegetation, and provide a home for a great variety of animal life. The temperate deciduous forest is a biome that is always changing. It has four distinct seasons: winter, spring, summer and fall. Winters are cold and summers are warm. Precipitation in this biome happens year round. Because the soil is very fertile and hardwood trees are good for building, this biome has some of the world's largest population centers in it. 1. Producers: Producers in a deciduous forest food web consists of fruit producing trees, fungi, nematodes, and different types of soil bacteria. Occasionally a deciduous forest food web contains open places where grass plans and shrubs grow and constitutes primary producers.
2. Primary consumers: Primary consumer in a deciduous forest food web consists of rodents, insects, birds and occasionally deer’s and other herbivores.
3. Secondary consumers: Secondary predators in a deciduous forest food web comprises of carnivores and small predators like birds, opossum, foxes, etc.,
4. Tertiary consumers: a deciduous forest food web ends with omnivorous large predators like bears.
A temperate deciduous forest is a biome found in the eastern and western United States, Canada, central Mexico, South America, Europe, China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and parts of Russia. Summers are usually rather warm—although not as hot as a desert—while the winters are cold but not usually frigid. The temperature in the temperate forest averages about 50° F (10° C). A temperate forest receives roughly 30 to 60 inches (760 to 1,500 millimeters) of precipitation each year, evenly distributed throughout the year. Of all the world's biomes, only the tropical rain forest averages more. In the winter, precipitation often falls in the form of snow. Climate Important Fact: The word "Deciduous" means "falling off or out at a certain season". That explains why deciduous forest means a forest in which the leaves fall off the trees when the winter comes. Locations Food Web And Trophic Levels American Black Bear Carrying Capacity and Population Growth The black bear, is a predator, and an omnivore. The Black Bear looks for food with the highest nutritional value. It will eat virtually anything, but 75% of its diet is made up of plants and other vegetation, while the other 25% is made up of carcasses, honey, small mammals and insects. If whatever the bear eats becomes scarce or disappears then the bear population will decrease. If the food increases then the bear population will increase. And the bear population can only increase to the point at which its ecosystem can support it. Genus: Ursus
Species: americanus Limiting Factors Density Dependent Density Independent Competition
Predation
Disease
Parasitism
Crowding Forest Fires
Hurricanes
Tornadoes
Floods Biotic Oak Trees
Eastern Gray Squirrels
White-Tailed Deer Abiotic Nutrients
Minerals
Gases
Rocks and Soil Energy Avaliability Resources http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/nwep8c.htm http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=88243 http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_forest.htm Pine, Devera. "Temperate Forests." The New Book of Popular Science. Grolier Online, 2011. Web. 8 Feb. 2011. http://cnre.vt.edu/dendro/Forsite/tdfbiome.htm http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_plant_page.htm http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/nwep8c.htm http://www.tutorvista.com/biology/deciduous-forest-food-web http://www.worldbuilders.org/lessons/less/biomes/deciduous/decpy.html http://www.tutorvista.com/bow/temperate-deciduous-forest-abiotic-factors By: Candice Davis
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