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Copy of WORDS, SENTENCES AND DICTIONARIES
Transcript of Copy of WORDS, SENTENCES AND DICTIONARIES
3.Word with predictable meaning
5.Conclusion: words versus lexical items
In philosophy, the terms
are sometimes used to describe formal objects and instances of those objects. A type is a category or class of an object or event, whereas a token is a specific instance whereas a token is a specific instance or occurance of a type of object or event.
Types and tokens may be most clearly demonstrated using words.
Consider the following:
space, time, space, time, time, time.
The question may be asked, how many words are in that line? The answer will either be six, if one is referring to individual words, or tokens, or two, if one is referring to types of words.
Specifically, there are
of words in that sentence, “space” and “time”, but there are
, six individual occurances of those types. There are two tokens of the type “space” and four tokens of the type “time”.
Uses in philosophy:
are used in various areas of philosophy.
philosophy of mind
, for instance, the terms are used to describe versions of
, which states that mental states are actually, or are identical to, brain states. Type identity theory refers to specific types of brain states always producing the same type of mental state, while token identity theory would say that the brain and mental states are still identical, but not in a way that can be directly typed. One type of brain state may produce different types of mental states from token to token.
2. TYPE AND TOKEN
- We often think that a sentence must always consist of more than one word. However, it’s the fact that we sometime use a word to express warning shout, conventional commands, item on shopping lists.
Ex: “Listen!” , “Go!”, “Look!”, “Camera!”, “Action!” , “cheese”, “fish”...
- In a dictionary, you can find: an association of word, alphabetically listed, with a definition of what it means, and perhaps also some information about grammar and its pronunciation.
- Words are known as the basic units of meaningful building-blocks of language, possessing 2 characteristics:
1. unpredictable meaning: in that they have meanings that are unpredictable and so must be listed in dictionaries.
2. building-block (in phrases/ sentences): in that they are the building-blocks out of which phrases and sentences are formed.
1.Words as meaningful building-blocks of language
There are also sets of words in which some similarity in sound to reflect a similarity in meaning.Sound symbolism is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves.
Gl-Words: glow,gleam,glory,glitter,glance and glimpse
Over the -ump: hump,lump,plump,bump,crump
Biology – biologist
Entomology – entomologist
Zoology – Zoologist
So based on the knowledge of one’s languages you can easily guess the meaning of the brand new word.
A: I never choose the
in the video game ?
B: Why ? Do you hate woman that much ?
Question: Do any words have meanings that are predictable?
What kinds of word do have predictable meaning ?
Try to predict meanings of these words?
There are some sound seems to reflect their meaning directly called
a.The ticking of the clock !
b.Sound of pig
German and America: oink oink
South Korea: kouro kouro kuh
Japan: buhi buhi
The conventional interpretation is motivated in the sense that it arises through metaphorical extension of the literal meaning.
Idioms are still unpredictable in the sense of being conventional.
If idioms are listed in dictionaries, should proverbs be listed too? As usual, ordinary dictionaries do not list proverbs, because they are conventionally regarded as belonging not to the vocabulary of a language but to its usage. For present purposes, what is important about proverbs is that they constitute a further example of a linguistic unit whose use and meaning are in some degree unpredictable, but which is larger than a word.
(1) People who do not finish a job really make me angry.
(2) People who do not finish a job really make me see red.
=> “see red” in sentence (2) means “angry”.
Thus, although “see red” consists of two words, it functions as a single unit semantically and its meaning is not predictable from that of these two words individually. In technical terms, “see red” is an idiom. Even though it is not a word, it will appear in any dictionary that takes seriously the task of listing semantic idiosyncrasies, probably under the headword “red”.
Idioms are enormously various in length, structure and function. “See red” behaves rather like an adjective. Many idioms behave more like nouns. For example:
(3) Vaccinations are an unavoidable matter if you want to travel.
(4) Vaccinations are a necessary evil if you want to travel.
“necessary evil” in sentence (4) means something you do not like but which you must accept. Therefore, (3) and (4) are the same.
In most of the idioms that we have looked at so far, all the individual words (red, necessary, evil) have a literal or non-idiomatic meaning in other contexts. However, there are also words that never occur except in an idiomatic context. For example:
- I like everything about summer - the light, the warmth, the clothes - the whole caboodle.
The word “caboodle” exists only in the phrase “whole (kit and) caboodle” (everything) and it is the whole phrase which deserves to be lexically listed, as an idiom.
Akin to idioms, but distinguishable from them, are phrases in which individual words have collocationally restricted meanings. For example:
- blue baby: a baby born with slightly blue skin, usually because it has something wrong with its heart.
- blue – blooded: describes someone who has been born into a family which belongs to the highest social class.
- blue – collar: describes people who do work needing strength or physical skill rather than office work.
=> These phrases may count as idiomatic because the meaning that “blue” has in them is not its usual meaning.
If a typical idiom is a phrase, then a word with a collocationally restricted meaning is smaller than a typical idiom. That provokes the question whether there are linguistic items with unpredictable meanings that are larger than phrases – specifically, that constitute whole sentences. The answer is yes: many proverbs fall into this category. A proverb is a traditional saying, syntactically a sentence, whose conventional interpretation differs from what is suggested by the literal meaning of the words it contains.
- “Two wrongs don’t make a right”: When someone has done something bad to you, trying to get revenge will only make things worse.
- "The pen is mightier than the sword”: Trying to convince people with ideas and words is more effective than trying to force people to do what you want.
- "No man is an island”: You can't live completely independently. Everyone needs help from other people.
4.Non - Words With Unpredictable Meanings
Words have 2 characteristics:
- They have meanings that are unpredictable and so must be listed in dictionaries (lexical item)
- They are the building-blocks for word and phrases.
Although this may be broadly true, the two characteristic do not always go together.
* Although many words have meanings that are predictable, there is nevertheless a tendency for these meaning to lose motivation overtime.
* Many of the lexical items that are phrases or sentences have meanings which can be seen as metaphorical extensions of a literal meaning, so do that extant interpretation remains motivated.
1. Which of these following words may NOT need to be listed in a dictionary or modern English?
a. beautiful beautifully beauty
b. selfish selfishness selfishly
c. entertaining entertainment entertain
d. cloudy cloud cloudless
e. economic economical economist
2. Which of the following phrases (in italics) may be lexical items?
a. The abortion issue is a political hot potato in the United States.
b. She likes eating hot potatoes.
c. Tom’s favorite food is hot dog.
d. You won your race? Hot dog!
e. This flat is a far cry from the house they had before.
f. This flat is completely different from the house they had before.
There are words composed of parts where the meaning of one part is sufficient to determine the meaning of the whole word.
Can you guess the meaning of the red word?
I want to be an entomologist.
Can you guess again?