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Transcript of RESEARCH
...is a process of enquiry and investigation; it is systematic, methodical and ethical; research can help solve problems and increase knowledge.
..is an endeavour to discover new or collate old facts by a scientific study of a subject or by a course of
• review or synthesize existing knowledge
• investigate existing situations or problems
• provide solutions to problems
• explore and analyse more general issues
• construct or create new procedures or systems
• explain new phenomenom
• generate new knowledge
• and it could be a combination of the above
(Collis & Hussey, 2003)
•your own creative practice
(visual / philosophical / ethical / technological / and social aspects of practice and their questioning)
•your 'business' practice (the audience / market context for your work / pricing / working environments / studios / others working in the field / close contemporaries)
•a funding application (NESTA / Visual Arts Funding / Creative Scotland)
For You and your development
For the development of the field / discipline
•advancing knowledge through PhD study
so that others can learn from your
•presenting your research at symposia
and conferences to bring the research
directly to practitioners working in
the same areas.
•publishing through peer reviewed
journals and books.
•securing funding from research councils
to explore ideas and questions thus
adding to knowledge and the advancement
of the field.
For the benefit of societal / educational / economic /cultural / health concerns
• cross disciplinary research (art / medicine : craft / economy : design / crime : art / community )
• major research councils sponsor research encouraging collaboration
between universities and across different disciplines.
The 'creative industries'
architecture,visual arts,advertising, design,film,publishing,radio & television, music, computer games & multi-media
accounts for 7% of our economy
with a growth rate double that of whole econmomy
CREATIVE INDUSTRIES ARE A MAJOR ECONOMIC FORCE
major source of employment and business development
ALWAYS STARTS WITH questions..........
a question or problem we want to explore and resolve.
It's possible we think we know the answer but until we have subjected our question to rigorous scrutiny through looking at and assessing our knowledge base or testing our knowledge base, then our current 'hunch' or anecdotal knowledge remains just that!!
What is Research?
(this can also be referred to as ....
Positivistic approaches are based on research methods commonly used in science. They are characterised by a detached approach that seeks to address facts or causes of phenomena in a systematic way
measurable, rational, deductive
is also referred to as...
Phenomenlogical approaches view research from the standpoint that human behaviour is not as easily measured as phenomena within the sciences. Human motivation can be shaped by factors not always visible or evidenced through scientific means. People place their own 'meaning' on ideas, and events.
describe, translate, interpret,
2012 Gray's School of Art. Sculpture Studio
dissertation / critical evaluations / thesis / report
Training to do....research
begins at undergraduate level
BA Honours Research projects and Masters Research projects
MPhil + PhD
Master of Philosophy and Doctor of Philosophy
These qualifications are not taught; they are supervised.
The student is provided with research training and is expected to design their research approach, their
appropriate to their research question/s.
The Research Supervisors form part of a supervisory team which help to question and support the research work of the student.
The PhD is awarded on the basis that 'new knowledge' has been contributed to the field.
and then we look at ways of trying to answer the questions rigorously............
...or research procedure
is the way you go about researching your subject and question.
English and Scottish contemporary Painting in the expression of national identity ...discuss
How is enamel on silver affected by rapid cooling?
Textile production in Scotland in the period 1920 - 1940
Some subjects / fields of enquiry, such as the social sciences have developed their own standardised methodologies that help bring rigour to fnding out what they want to understand
methodologies in all fields tend to overlap
what about art & design ?
...have we developed approaches that go beyond already accepted research methods?
practice - led research
....to practice is to know
....is to experience the challenge of making work
......is to develop personal knowledge
..is to develop tacit knowledge
in order to address questions arising from practice, practice needs to be analysed, dissected, and explored further in order to inform knowledge and understanding. Practice becomes a research method through which questions are answered.
PRACTICE - LED research
....is to contextualise
...is to theoretically underpin
....is to acquire detached informed understanding and knowledge
....is to triangulate knowledge prior to action
practice becomes methodology
a systematic approach to addressing research questions through positivistic and phenomenological methods that would inform new forms of practice. Practice forms part of new knowledge and outcomes of the research question.
often research design uses both
& THEIR BEGINNINGS
Finding something out we don't already know
wolves were probably domesticated
Pre- Critical Science
Megalithic structures, religious and astronomical beliefs. Some mathematical principles.
Combination of religion and astronomy is fundamental to early history of science.
Astronomy (Queen of sciences) closely linked to Theology for the next 4,000 years.
Birth of Natural Philosophy - Greek Science
Greek religion in comparison to other great civilisations, could not answer most 'big questions' about mankind and its place. Greek theology did not provide any profound explanations of the cosmos or of the human heart. In such conditions, the vacuum of belief and thought was filled by a more penetrating mode of enquiry ....Philosophy
traces the history of
science......... ' knowledge
of the world of
human condition seeks to order chaos and so we try to construct meaning or regularities when sometimes none objectively exist.
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Archimedes, Pythagoras, Hippocrates
observed natural phenomena, liquid to gas, 'matter', 'element', form and number,deduction, reasoning.
Sosigenes of Alexandria
designed the calendar of 365.25 days. This was introduced by Julias Caeasar
Calcidus translated 53 chapters of Plato's 'Timaeous' into Latin
translated 'analysis' and 'synthesis' as resolutio and compositio
maintained that combining these was he proper method of philosphical research
the first paper (Chinese invention)
Aristotelian beliefs held sway in the Middle Ages through the work of Thomas Aquinas.
Giotto - naturalism in space (portrayal of emotion)
Brunelleschi - scientifically accurate perspective
Gutenburg Press - first print in Europe to use movable type that were cast
Leonardo Da Vinci - anatomy, motion, measurement, Archmedian approaches to measurement.
Copernicus - Sun at the centre of the cosmos.
Galileo's telescope - confirms Copernicus's theory
Galileo's final book
'helped create a new age of scientific thought with their emphasis on observation, common sense, clear language, and persuasion by reasonable arguments (Park 1990:206)
'An important message about the arts' - an animated video by artist David Shrigley
Arts in 60 Seconds:
Research Lecture by Sean Caulfield
Visual artist researches the link between technology and art
Michael J. Miller, Associate Professor of Visual Art.
University of Illinois Springfield, USA.
Craft Skills Research
Dr. Nicola Wood, Crafts magazine.
is a critical activity for the
development of society as a whole.
15th Feb 2016 / Gray's School of Art / Stage 3 CCS programme