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Transcript of Body Organization
Organization by systems: organs are put together to form body systems
Nervous tissue: responds to stimuli and transmits impulses. E.g. brain and optic nerves
Muscular tissue: moves body parts, specialized for contraction.
Blood, an example of connective tissue that transports nutrients
Epithelial tissue covers surfaces, line body cavities, and form glands capable of producing secretions, e.g.. Skin and the sweat glands
Types of tissues
Thoracic cavity or thorax: the upper compartment which contains the heart, the esophagus, and the organs of the respiratory system- the lungs, trachea and bronchi
Abdomino-pelvic: the lower compartment
Abdominal cavity: contains the liver, gallblader, stomach, pancreas, intestine, kidneys and ureters.
Pelvic cavity: Includes the urinary bladder, reproductive organs and parts of the large intestine.
Main body cavities
They house many organs and organ systems which will be protected from injuries
Dorsal cavity includes:
Cranial cavity: contains the cranium that protects the encephala and its nervous structures. Encases the brain.
Spinal cavity : includes the spinal cord.
Main body cavities
The ribs are more superficial than the heart
The heart is deeper than the ribs
Other ways of using these terms:
The hand is part of the superiror limb
The foot is part of the inferior limb
The kneecap is located on the anterior side of the leg
The shoulder blades are located on the posterior part of the body
The middle toe is located at the lateral side of the foot
The proximal end of the femur joins with the pelvic bone
The hand is located at the distal end of the forearm
Even more examples
The nose is medial to the eyes
The eyes are lateral to the nose
The shoulder is proximal to the wrist
The wrist is distal to the forearm
The nose is anterior to the ears
The ears are posterior to the nose
The directional terms are used in pairs
The head is superior to the neck
The neck is inferior to the head
The thigh is superior to the knee
The knee is inferior to the thigh
The toes are anterior to the heel
The heel is posterior to the toes
Examples of how the relative directional terms are used
Relative directional terms of the body:
Terms of reference to describe the location of a body part.
Relative meaning that the location of one part of the body is always described in relation to another part of the body
Some relative directional terms
It contains the head, (cranium, face, etc), neck, torso (thorax, abdomen and pelvis).
Upper limbs: the arms, shoulders, forearms, wrists, including the hands
Lower limbs: the hip, thighs, lower legs, knee, ankle, feet and toe.
Main body regions
To study the structures of the body, its movements or what relation they keep with another part of the body, there is a specific universal position called: anatomical position.
Body is erect, with arms at the sides with the palms of the hands to the front, head and feet to the front, feet together.
BODY REGIONS AND CAVITIES
4 MAIN TYPES OF TISSUES
Levels of organization
Coronal (frontal plane): divides the body into assymetrical anterior and posterior sections
Sagittal (lateral plane): divides it lenghtwise along the middle into externally symmetrical sections, left and right
Axial (transverse plane): divides the body horizontally into upper and lower sections
Planes of the body.- imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body into:
Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
Physiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery