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Transcript of Logical Fallacies
Appeal To Force
-Giving two choices when in actuality there could be more choices possible.
Definition-Trying to get someone to accept something because it has been done or believed for a long time.
Appeal to Tradition
Ms. Staking's English III Honors Class
Begging The Question
-The rejection of an argument because
the person in support of an argument is associated with someone who
Guilt by Association
Poisoning the well is a logical fallacy in which a
negative comment is spoken out against a person so their
argument is discredited.
Poisoning the Well
False Cause Fallacy
This fallacy is when an argument that one event caused another to happen when it was merely a coincidence.
by Meesh, Mandy and Julien
Assuming the thing to be true that you are trying to prove. It is circular.
By: Xavier Estrada, Amec Lujan, Brianna Shaw
Definition: Telling the hearer that something bad will happen to him if he does not accept the argument.
Introducing a topic not related
to the subject at hand
"It's this room!"
"Your face is a room."
xample from the Crucible:
Parris: "Such a Christian that will not come to church but once in a month!"
Act III pg. 1295
Appeal to Pity
Mary Warren: "I am sick, I am sick, Mr. Proctor. Pray, pray, hurt me not." Act 2, (pg.1271)
Proctor is angry at Mary Warren even though he forbid her to leave the house. Yet her pleadings throw him off, which causes him to ease up a bit. The argument was thus avoided while Proctor is instead interested in what she has to say on why she feels ill.
Definition: Urging the hearer to accept the argument based upon an appeal to emotion and sympathy.
-He got into in accident, because it was Friday the 13th.
Quotes From the Crucible
1.False Cause Fallacy
3. Francis:"These are all covenanted Christians, sir."
Danforth: "Then I am sure they may a have nothing to fear."
4. Danforth ignores the fact that the girls could be lying, and want vengeance, so any christian good are bad could be convicted.
By Maty S., Jennifer, and Jackie
Examples from The Crucible
Act 3, pg. 1291
Martha Corey & Judge Hawthorne
Martha Corey: I am innocent to a witch. I know not what a witch is.
Hawthorne: How do you know, then, that you are not a witch?
Hawthorne is questioning Martha's conviction that she isn't a witch, when she claims she has no idea what a witch is.
Example from The Crucible
Act 1 pg. 1256
Rebecca Nurse & Mrs. Putnam
Rebecca: Goody Ann! You sent a child to conjure up the dead?
Mrs. Putnam: Let God blame me, not you, not you, Rebecca! I'll not have you judging me any more! Is it a natural work to lose seven children before they live a day?
Mrs. Putnam is jumping to the conclusion that her deceased children died of a curse, not of natural causes.
"You are either lying now, or you were lying in court, and in either case you have committed purgery and you will go to jail for it." Judge Danforth Act III
Judge Danforth is accusing Mary Warren of lying . When she said she is not lying, he automatically assumed that she lied while in court. According to Danforth, it's not a possibility that she was telling the truth both times, or that she was lying both times. The punishment would be the same if she was lying or not.
Example from "The Crucible" By Arthur Miller
Example from "The Crucible"
"Was it man or woman came with him?" pg.1261
Parris is making the assumption that Tituba saw another person come to her with the Devil. He phrases the question in such a way that forces Tituba to admit something she didn't do.
By: Matt Boer
If such actions were not illegal, then they wouldn't have been prohibited.
If it's on TV, it has to be a good show, only good shows are on TV.
They can't put anything on the internet that isn't true.....
"The Devil can never overcome a minster. You know that, do you not?" -Hale
(Page: 1261 Act:1)
-Throughout the year we celebrate many traditions, which have been around for many years.
The above is an appeal to tradition because it shows that they strongly believe in their religion and they have faith in their ministers, religion and tradition are almost taken to belong to each other because every religion has their own beliefs and celebrations which are considered to be a form of tradition.
"If she is truly in the devil's grip we may have to rip and tear to get her free."
(Page: 1257 Act:1)
"All the men in my family have become doctors, so I will too. It's tradition."
"Do you not know that God damns all liars."
-Danforth to Mary Warren
(Page: 1302 Act: 3)
This is an appeal to tradition because Danforth is implying that everyone must know that God condemns liars. It's always been like that, so Mary Warren has no reason to believe otherwise, according to Danforth and the town of Salem.
The Straw Man Argument
Through misinterpretation of one's
position a less important, but seemingly
equal argument is attacked without actually addressing the real argument.
Bicycle infrastructure should be expanded because cycling is a sustainable mode of transportation.
Straw man argument: We should not build bike lanes because cyclists run red lights and endanger pedestrians.
EXAMPLE FROM THE CRUCIBLE
Act II pg. Proctor, Cheever and Danforth
: I have no love for Mr. Parris, it is no secret, but God i surley love.
He plow on Sunday sir.
: Plow on Sunday!
: I think it be evident John. I am an official of the court, I cannot keep it.
: I-I have 3 children sir, and until last year my land gave little
How it relates to the Crucible:
Proctor and Cheever argue about Proctor's innocence in court. Cheever brings up religion to make the issue seem bigger. Bringing up religion makes the issue bigger than it originally was.
Example 1) Pg. 1313
Danforth - "You will confess yourself or you will hang! Do you know who I am? I say you will hang if you do not open to me!"
Danforth is insisting for Mary to confess or threatening her with being hung. But she's horrified and does not confess to anything. In the case that she were to confess she would still be punished so either way she didn't have a choice.
Danforth - "Good then. To Abigail: And if she tell me,child, it were for harlotry, may God spread his mercy on you! Turn your back!
If someone were to confess to Danforth on Abigail then may God have mercy on her.
"You had better agree that the new company policy is the best if you expect to keep your job."
- We cannot be sure of that, Goody Ann-
- I know it, sire. I sent my child- she should learn from Tituba who murdered her sisters.
Goody Ann! you sent a child to conjure up the dead?
In this example I think the Straw Man Argument is shown when Rebecca comes to the conclusion that Mrs.Puttnam sent the kids to Tituba with the hope and understanding that the dead would be conjured. But truly she sent her kid there to talk to Tituba and did not know that this was going to happen.
Putnam: "I never heard you worried so on this society. Mr. Proctor, I do not think I saw you at Sabbath meeting since snow flew." Act I (First line on page 1250)
Example from The Crucible
Mary Warren: "I saved her life today!" Act 2, (pg.1273)
Proctor who was going to punish Mary for disobeying commands, was suddenly distracted with the strong emotional appeal that Mary has said. Feeling these mixed emotions, he finally sends her to bed which avoids the argument and punishment.
Appeal to Pity:
"You can't send this man to jail! Just look at his frail and ill mother. Who can care for her now?"
"But I didn't have time to work on the project. Come on, guys! I had to visit my sick grandma in Texas and it was impossible to do."
By appealing to people's ability to pity others, a powerful emotive force can be created.
Ad Hominem, a word/phrase which here refers to one attacking an individual instead of the argument.
-Angel Fletez and Mr. Carter
Parris is trying to bring Proctor's religion into question, to try to discredit what he's saying.
Example 2 from the Crucible:
Proctor: "How do you call Heaven! Whore! Whore!"
Abigail has just cried to the Lord to save her from Mary's spirit, and Proctor reveals that he and Abigail had an affair, which has nothing to do with the subject at hand.
xample 3 from the Crucible:
I know your car isn't working right. But, if you had gone to the store one day earlier, you'd not be having problems.
Danforth: And how do you imagine to help her cause with such contemptuous riot? Now be gone. Your old age alone keeps you out of jail for this. (Act II)
Sarah Cole, Yasemin Omari, Annalisa Romero
"In the book of record that Mr. Parris keeps, I note that you are rarely in the church on Sabbath Day."
-Hale pg. 64 Act 2
-The quote is an example of poisoning the well because Proctor is accused of rarely going to church which makes him look bad among the pious Salemites.
Henry is uneducated, keep that in mind
as you listen to him.
"You're the Devil's man!"
-Mary Warren pg. 118 Act 3
-Before John Proctor can convince Mary to continue with her confession she claims he compacts with the Devil to save herself.
-By claiming Proctor is in league with the Devil it is assumed that he is evil.
"Your Excellency, I only said she were readin' books, sir, and they come and take her out of my house for." - Giles Corey pg. 1292 Act 3
-Witches read books therefore Martha is in league with the witches.
"All innocent and Christian people are happy for the courts in Salem!" -Parris pg. 1297 act 3
The court is Christian and anyone who is Christian should support the church simple because they are Christian.
"Not going to the store" is an unrelated
side note. It has nothing to do with the car
John Proctor's religious habits are unrelated
to his concern "on this society." However, Putnam
tries to win the argument by switching to a topic
in which he has the upper hand.
This is an example of poisoning the well because the insult against the fact Henry has not been formally educated makes everything he says afterward looks dumb.
Danforth, disturbed by Giles' "riot," tries to gain an edge in the argument by referring to Giles' "old age." In reality, his age is unrelated to the subject at hand.
and Kyle Turner
and Kyle Turner
Act III, pg 1308
Danforth: " Are you a Gospel man, Mr. Proctor?"
Danforth has just questioned Proctor's knowledge of the Gospel into question, even though that has nothing to do with the trials.
Act III, pg 1296