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The American Revolution

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Douglas Brown

on 21 October 2016

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Transcript of The American Revolution

The American Revolution
1775-1783
Ft. Ticonderoga
taken May, 1775
Benedict Arnold
1741-1801
Horatio Gates
Nathaniel Greene
Lt. General Thomas Gage
1763-1775 Commander-in-Chief of British forces in North America
May, 1774- October, 1775 Governor of Massachusetts
Lt. General William Howe
1746-1803
Commander-in-Chief of British forces
Sept.1775-May, 1778
Admiral Richard Howe
Lt. General Henry Clinton
Commander-in-Chief of British forces,
May 1778-May 1782
General Charles Cornwallis
Colonel Banastre Tarlton
Major John Andre
General John Burgoyne
Surrender at Saratoga
October 17, 1777
General Guy Carlton
Governor of Quebec, 1768-78
Commander-in-Chief of British in America,
May 1782-Sept. 1783
Daniel Morgan
commanded riflemen (targeted Indian guides and British officers)
Captured at Quebec with over 400 men in 1775
Harassed British as Americans withdrew across NJ in 1776
Fought in Saratoga Campaign in 1777
Led troops in the South in 1780
Henry Knox
Colonel Benedict Arnold's March to Quebec
September 1775
350 miles of very difficult travel
1100 men begin;
1/3 turn back early on
about 600 arrive in Quebec in November
General Philip Schuyler
John Glover

in 1775, his schooner
Hannah
had been chartered by Washington to be the first of many
privateers
authorized to attack British supply vessels.

*Privateers are privately owned ships given a license from one government to attack ships from another country.

14th Continental Regiment sees action in New York and New Jersey in 1776, but disbands when enlistments expired at years end.

By Ralph Waldo Emerson
By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
Their flag to April's breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood,
And fired the shot heard 'round the world.
In "Concord Hymn" on July 4, 1837
School House Rock: Shot Heard Around the World
Admiral, Compt de Grasse
General Rochambeau
Patrick Henry
Noble Train of Artillery
60 tons of artillery over 300 miles
Ft. Ticonderoga to Boston area
took 56 days in winter of 1775-76
Arnold at Saratoga, 1777
1706 Born January 17 in Boston, MA
1732-58 Publisher,
Poor Richard's Almanac
1752 Kite experiment
1757-62 Pennsylvania Representative in London
1764-75 Represents PA, GA, MA, and NJ in London
1775-76 Member of 2nd Continental Congress for PA
1776-85 Minister to France; goes to France in 1778
1787 Delegate to the Constitutional Convention
1790 died April 17 in Philadelphia, PA
Warm up: Review
Place the following events in chronological order by year
A. "
Common Sense
," Boston is liberated, the Declaration of Independence, New York is lost, Trenton.
B. Battle of Monmouth, France enters the war.
C. "It is a fine fox chase, my boys," the loss of Philadelphia, victory at Saratoga, winter quarters at Valley Forge.
D. Lexington and Concord, Breed's Hill, Washington takes command of Continental Army, Arnold marches through wilderness to attack Quebec.
D. 1775
A. 1776
C. 1777
B. 1778
General Clinton takes command of British Forces and moves to New York.


Battle of Monmouth
June 28, 1778

Washington: 13425 (152/300/37)
Clinton: 13000 (190/390/576)

over 100 men die in the heat
Camden, August 16, 1780
Gates: of 3700, suffered 1900 casualties; overestimated his militia; many men sick from diet of green corn.

Cornwallis: 2239 (68/245)

Gates's principal accomplishment in the unsuccessful campaign was to cover 170 miles (270 km) in three days on horseback, heading north in retreat.

Continental Army in the south was smashed and efforts to resist the British lead to guerrilla warfare.
The Declaration of Independence
1. States natural rights and talks of the social contract
2. Lists complaints against the king
3. Declares independence from Great Britain
It is NOT a constitution. It does not set up a new government.
"Common Sense" argued monarchy was wrong and that citizens should make rules for themselves.

It is pro-Patriot propaganda
1775
1776
1777
The Year of the Hangman

1778
1779
1780
1781
William Dawes: Thrown from his horse after Lexington,
when escaping a mounted British patrol.
Dr. Samuel Prescott joined Revere and Dawes, and was the only one to reach Concord.
Great Britain v. The US Colonies
Commanders Sir William Howe
Dr. Joseph Warren, Israel Putnam, William Prescott

British
Force: 3000
Killed: 226
Wounded: 828
Captured: 0

Americans
Force: 2400
Killed: 115
Wounded: 305
Captured: 30

British take the hill, but Americans proved they could fight in a traditional battle and the British could be beaten.

Second Continental Congress; May 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (12 Colonies)
1. Create Continental Army (Mostly New England soldiers)
2. Place George Washington in command
3. Send Olive Branch Petition to King George III
4. Call on states to write new constitutions
"I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
Nathan Hale, Sept. 22, 1776
"It's a fine fox chase, my boys!"

Battle of Princeton
January 3, 1777

Washington: 4000 (30/75)
British: 1200 (60/150/244)
Sept. 16, 1776
Gone Away
In the summer of 1776, Sir Guy Carleton led a large force of British ships and moved down Lake Champlain. To oppose them, American General Arnold had assembled a small force of ships. Arnold's spirited defense against overwhelming odds held back the British long enough to convince Carleton to withdraw for the winter once he had arrived at Fort Ticonderoga.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The American failure to capture Canada, provided the British with the opportunity to use it as location to launch an attack on the Americans. Sir Guy Carleton, the British commander in Canada, had been instructed to invade New York by way of Lake Champlain. Carleton was ordered to secure the Mohawk Valley and the upper waters of the Hudson.

During the summer of 1776, Carleton worked to build and buy a fleet with which to obtain control of Lake Champlain. Obtaining control of Lake Champlain was an arduous task. Three large York vessels were sent over from England. The vessels proceeded up the St. Lawrence, as far as the rapids. At the rapids the vessels were taken to pieces and carried overland to St. John's. Then, the vessels were reassembled at St. John's. Twenty gunboats and more than two hundred flat-bottomed transports were built at Montreal. These vessels were manned with 700 picked seamen and gunners. Carleton embarked on this flotilla with his army of 12,000 men.

Benedict Arnold had been working all the summer with desperate energy to oppose the threatened invasion. In June, the materials for Arnold's navy were growing in the forests of Vermont. Though his carpenters with their tools, his sailmakers with their canvas, and his gunners with their guns had to be brought from the coast towns of Connecticut and Massachusetts. By the end of September Arnold had built a little fleet, consisting of three schooners, two sloops, three galleys, and eight gondolas. Arnold outfitted his flotilla with seventy guns and as many seamen and gunners as he could gather together.

Arnold knew his flotilla was not large enough to stop the much larger British force, but his goal was to delay them. He hoped, by putting up an heroic defense, he could raise the spirits of the people and spur them on to further resistance. To allow Carleton to reach Ticonderoga without opposition would be disheartening to colonists. Whereas if the British were opposed and delayed, the colonists might hope to dampen the enthusiasm of the invaders. With this end in view, Arnold proceeded down Lake Champlain, far to the north of Crown Point. He took up a strong position between Valcour Island and the western shore. Arnold had both his wings covered. As a result, he could only be attacked in front. Arnold lay in wait for the enemy.

On the 11th of October, Sir Guy Carleton's squadron approached the American lines. There, the first battle fought between an American and a British fleet ensued. At sundown, after a desperate fight of seven hours' duration, the British withdrew out of range. However, the British intended to renew the struggle in the morning. Both fleets had suffered severely. Though the Americans were so badly cut up, that Sir Carleton expected to force them to surrender the next day. Surprisingly, during the hazy night, Arnold contrived to slip through the British line with all that was left of his crippled flotilla. The forces Arnold commanded made way for Crown Point with all possible speed. Arnold had to stop once to mend leaks. He stopped once to take off men and guns from two gondolas which were sinking. Nevertheless, by dint of sailing and kedging, Arnold got such a start that the enemy did not overtake him until the next day, when he was nearing Crown Point.

Arnold ordered the rest of the American fleet to sail for their haven. Meanwhile, Arnold and his schooner engaged in an ugly fight, lasting four hours with the three largest British vessels. One of the British fighting vessels mounted eighteen twelve pound cannons. Arnold's vessel was terribly cut up in the skirmish. Her deck was covered with dead and dying men. After having sufficiently delayed the enemy, Arnold succeeded in running the schooner aground in a small creek. Then he set the ship on fire.

Then Arnold marched through woodland paths to Crown Point. There, Arnold's other vessels had disembarked their men. Arnold brought away his whole force in safety to Ticonderoga. When Carleton appeared before that celebrated fortress, he found it strongly defended. Carleton doubted his ability to reduce Ticonderoga before the cold weather set in. Carleton decided to take his army back to Canada. He was satisfied, for the present, with having gained control of Lake Champlain.

Carleton's sudden retreat astonished both friends and foes. He was blamed for it by his generals, Burgoyne, Phillips, and Riedesel, as well as by the King. When it became clear how easily the fortress was seized by Phillips in the following summer, there was hardly any doubt that Carleton's decision was a grave mistake.

CloseStyle: MLA APA Chicago

First Continental Congress September, 1774
(response to Intolerable Acts)
1. called for boycott
2. organize colonial militias (ex: Patrick Henry in VA, March, 1775)
3. Declaration of Resolves/Rights sent to George III

Did
NOT
seek separation from Great Britain
April 18, 1775

Thomas Gage sends 700 British Regulars to Concord

"The Regulars are coming out"

April 19, 1775

about 250 British casualties of 700 regulars
less than 100 colonial casualties of thousands of militia


express the number of British casualties in a percentage.

Problem from the Battle of Breed's Hill:

Congress believes militia will show up in force and fight in future battles,

This belief keeps Congress from approving an increase in the size of the Continental Army.

In future battles,not all militia will show up when called, and they sometimes perform poorly in combat due to lack of training and discipline.
Continental Congress will become the government of the Colonies from 1775-1781

There were several delegates from each state, but each state only had one vote.

(For example, if there were five delegates from a state and they voted on an issue, if three voted yes and two voted no, the state would vote yes.)

The Continental Congress had power because some Americans decided to recognize that it did, so it became the government for the American colonies during the rebellion against the king.
Washington from Virginia; early in the war, a southern general commanding a mostly northern army strengthens the bond between north and south.
Three types of soldiers in Revolution

militia-civilians serving as temporary soldiers;
did not often travel far from home colony.


regulars-professional soldiers serving a sovereign nation; traveled broadly


mercenaries-hired soldiers; traveled broadly while paid (Germans)
warm up: Cause and Effect, put the following events in chronological order.

A. The Intolerable Acts are passed by Parliament
B. The Battle of Lexington and Concord
C. The First Continental Congress meets
D. The Boston Tea Party

After Lexington and Concord, militia place Boston under
siege
. See map p. 115

Geography in War
1. Hills and landforms
2. Waterways
transportation
communication
defense
supplies/resources a constant worry for the Continental Army
weapons, food, clothing, pay, shelter, medicine
Two Groups of Americans

Patriots/Rebels: fighting against the King, will fight for independence.

Loyalists: loyal to King George III
General Howe departs Boston but will return to New York in July, 1776

With his brother (August),

and over 150 ships,

and over 30,000 British regulars and German Mercenaries.

Staten Island Peace Conference
September 11, 1776

General Howe
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Edmund Rutledge

Americans want their independence recognized, but Howe does not have the authority to deal with that situation.

Conference lasts just 3 hours.

July 2, 1776: Continental Congress votes unanimously in favor of independence (NY abstains)

July 4, 1776: Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence.

Richard Henry Lee of Virginia, proposed Lee Resolution, or resolution of Independence, on June 7, 1776
brother to Francis Lightfoot Lee.
both signed Declaration of Independence (with 54 others)
(Second cousin once removed of Light Horse Harry Lee, father of Robert E. Lee, who would marry Mary Anna Randolph Custis, step-great-granddaughter of George Washington)
Population during revolution
about 2.5 million (20% African descent)
Deaths: about 25,000
(8,000 in combat, 11,000 privateers estimated to have died on British prison ships near NY)

about 24,000 British casualties
Who was left out?
Initially, free African Americans could NOT serve in the Continental Army.

November, 1775 Lord Dunmore's proclamation said slaves who supported the British could gain their freedom.

December, 1775 Washington says Patriots should recruit and in 1776 Patriots begin to recruit free African Americans into the Continental Army. Slaves will also serve in militias and the Continental Army.

About 9,000 African Americans will serve the Patriot cause. Some slaves gained freedom, and some did not.

1st Rhode Island Regiment: African American, Native American, and whites soldiers. Considered the first African American regiment.

However, not much changed for black veterans, and by 1792 Congress banned blacks from serving in the military.
Winter of 1777 at Morristown, NJ

Small pox kills 4 of 10 infected.

Washington has army inoculated against smallpox
1 of 50 inoculated die.
September 1776 in New York
1. THESE are the times that try men's souls.

2. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country;

3. but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.

4. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph.

5. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives every thing its value.

6. Heaven knows how to put a proper price upon its goods; and it would be strange indeed if so celestial an article as FREEDOM should not be highly rated.


Britain, with an army to enforce her tyranny, has declared that she has a right (not only to TAX) but "to BIND us in ALL CASES WHATSOEVER" and if being bound in that manner, is not slavery, then is there not such a thing as slavery upon earth. Even the expression is impious; for so unlimited a power can belong only to God.
Fort Washington
November 16, 1776

53 killed, 96 wounded, 2818 captured
100 cannons lost

Fort Lee supplies captured by British
Battle of Long Island/Brooklyn Heights
August 27, 1776

Washington: 19,000 casualties: 300/1,100
Howe: 32,000 casualties: 63/314/23
Battle of Harlem Heights
September 16, 1776

Washington: 2,000 casualties: 30/100
British: 5,000 casualties: 14/157


Battle of White Plains
October 26, 1776

Washington: 14,500 (28/126)
Howe: 14,000 (313 casualties)
Battle of Trenton
December 26, 1776

Washington: 2400 (0/4/0
Rall: 1400 (22/92/948)
Freeman's Farm
September 19, 1777

Gates: 7000 (65/218)
Burgoyne: 6000 (600)

British left holding the field
October 7, 1777 Battle of Bemis Heights

Burgoyne Surrenders at Saratoga on October 17, 1777.

Gates: 11000 (50/150)
Burgoyne: 6300 (600//5300)

The Turning Point of the Revolution
The French will make an alliance with the United States in 1778, and send soldiers and ships to fight the British.
Siege of Yorktown
September 28-October 19, 1781

Washington: 11,133 (23/65)

Rochambeau: 7800 (60/193)

Cornwallis: 8885 (156/326/8087)
Washington loses to Howe at the battles of Brandywine Creek on September 11, and Germantown on October 4, 1777, giving the British access to the American's capital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Brandywine Creek
Washington: 11000 (1300 casualties)
Howe: 12500 (90/400)

Germantown
Washington: 11000 (152/521/400)
Howe: 9000 (90/400/14)

The British will spend the winter in Philadelphia and New York City. The Continental Army will winter at Valley Forge.
Valley Forge
December 1777-1778

10,000 enter
1 in 3 unfit for duty
1 in 10 will desert

2000 dead from disease and malnutrition
However, survivors were drilled, and ultimately became better soldiers.

Arnold rejoins army in May.
Takes an Oath of Allegiance to the United States
guerrilla warfare
hit and run
small groups
September 1779
Savannah, Georgia falls to the British

Over 5,000 slaves in Georgia go to the British. The number is so high, Clinton returns many to their masters.
March to May, 1780
Siege of Charleston, South Carolina

Benjamin Lincoln surrenders almost 5000 men to
British General Sir Henry Clinton

Lincoln: 5000 (92/148/4650)
Clinton: 14000 (76/189)

Clinton returns to New York, and Cornwallis is placed in charge in South Carolina.
Battle of Cowpens, South Carolina
January 17, 1781

Morgan: 1025 (12/60)
Tarlton: 1150 (100/229/829)

effective use of militia: fire twice and retreat
continental army will charge with bayonets

Cowpens considered the turning point in the south.
Guilford Court House, North Carolina
March 15, 1781

Greene: 4400 (78/183)
Cornwallis: 1900 (143/389)

Battle lasts 90 minutes

Cornwallis has cannons fire grape shot into a group of Americans and British to force them to break off fighting.

Cornwallis turns to the coast and heads into Virginia.

Greene moves to control South Carolina.

Chapter 4, section 4, pages 135-136 (stop at Yorktown)

1778: General Sir Henry Clinton decides to focus British efforts on controlling the southern colonies.

The British Hope to draw the strong Loyalist support in the region.
Francis Marion
"the Swamp Fox"
Phillipsburg Proclamation
June 30, 1779

Expanded on Lord Dunmore's Proclamation which freed slaves in Virginia who would fight for Britain.

Slaves who belonged to Patriots were free, even if they did not fight for the British, and the British would protect them and grant them land.

After the war about 3,000 slaves were relocated to Nova Scotia in Canada.
Campaign
Lord North
British Prime Minister of Parliament
1770-1782

November 1781
"It is all over!"
Treaty of Paris of 1783

Britain recognized American independence
Peggy Shippen
Meet in 1778
marry April 8, 1779
she is 18, he is 37
Arnold becomes a General in the British Army
leads 1600 men
Captures Richmond, Virginia in December 1780
destroys foundries, storehouses, and mills

Goes to New York, leads raid on New London, Connecticut then departs for London, England in 1781.
December 23, 1783
Washington resigns his commission
Maryland State House, Annapolis, Maryland
Arnold tricks St. Leger
Benjamin Lincoln
John Paul Jones

September 23, 1779
"I have not yet begun to fight"

American navy targeted British supply ships
1779
Continental Navy Privateers
Total ships 64 1,697
Total guns on ships 1,242 14,872
Enemy ships captured 196 2,283
Ships captured by enemy ? 1,323
Lord George Germain
Secretary of State for the American Department
(1 of three Secretaries of State;
Northern Department= Europe
Southern Department= rest of the world)

1775-1782

responsible for international relations, administration and military operations in an area

Main minister in charge of putting down rebellion in America

He could promote or relieve Generals,
took care of supplies,
and helped plan the war.
Recitals: Declaration of Independence/Preamble

50 = A flawless, or nearly so...
43 = B no paper, but need a little help
37 = C use paper with blanks
32 = D can only recite a portion of what is required, you can make it through the natural rights segment.
Breed's Hill
Three British Generals arrive in Boston

On May 25, three generals arrived on
HMS Cerberus
: William Howe,
John Burgoyne, and
Henry Clinton.

Gage began planning with them to break out of the city, finalizing a plan on June 12.
Throughout May, 1775, in response to orders from General Gage requesting support, the British received reinforcements, until they reached a strength of about 6,000 men.
Parliament
(Palace of Westminster)
Monarch
Bicameral legislature
House of Lords
House of Commons
Ministers are members of Parliament
-Prime Minister
Enlightenment
, p 95

John Locke
Social Contract
People have natural rights
Governments are created to protect those rights,
If a government fails to protect rights, the people should change the government.

Read
A New Philosophy of Government
, p 119
King George III, 1760-1820

ermine fur
Oct. 11, 1776
Battle of Valcour Bay
Arnold hold British forces at bay on Lake Champlain.
The British decide to hold off attack until 1777.
1st U.S. naval battle

Arnold: 750 (60/0/320)
Carlton: 1670 (40 casualties)

maybe was red
New York,
Saratoga 14:17
The French spent 1.3 billion livres on war costs.

1 livre was worth about $10 (1795 the franc is introduced).

The debt caused major economic and political problems for France, and, as the country struggled to pay its debts, eventually led to the Financial Crisis of 1786 and the French Revolution in 1789.
The French Government provided the Americans with loans, eventually totaling over two million dollars, most of which were negotiated by Benjamin Franklin.

John Adams also secured a loan from Dutch bankers in 1782.
General Charles Lee
With France entering the war, Genenral Henry Clinton is ordered to evacuate Philadelphia to increase forces in New York and to make men avaliable to help protect Florida and British islands in the West Indies.

Benedict Arnold is given command of Philadelphia.
Clinton begins to march 100 miles to NYC with about 11,000 men, thousands of loyalists, and a baggage train 12 miles long.
Washington leaves Valley Forge to attack!

General Charles Lee is the most senior general and is given command for an attack on Clinton's rearguard, but Lee is against the plan and LaFayette is given the job.
Lee then asks for the command back and gets it.

Lee attacks with about 5,000 men, and British General Charles Cornwallis moves to defend the British column.
Lee engages Cornwallis and then, after hours of fighting in intense heat (firing one volley), orders a tatical withdrawal which turns into a route!

Washington: "Da-n him!"
Washington fights Cornwallis to a standstill in a long battle.

First time the Continental Army is able to do that.

Clinton orders British to move out at midnight, ending the battle.

Monmouth is the last major battle in the north during the Revolutionary War.
General Greene
Quaker; in NY, NJ, PA; Quartermaster General at Valley Forge

at Monmouth
moves cannon onto Comb's Hill

Greene's men execute an
Enfilade
on the British Right
Baron Friedrich von Steuben

arrives February of 1778
Inspector General
writes training manuel
uniform drill -line to column and back
bayonet
General Greene did not win the major battles he commanded, but

Greene excelled in dividing, eluding, and tiring his opponent by long marches,
"We fight, get beat, rise, and fight again,"
and
forcing the British to pay heavily for a temporary advantage, a price that they could not afford.

Stoat
King's Mountain
October 7, 1780

Patriot versus Loyalist militia

Patriots surprise Loyalists
surround them and
massacre
many until officers get men under control.

Patriots: 900 (29/58)
Loyalists: 1,100 (290/163/688)

Builds Patriot moral in the South after several defeats by Cornwallis.

General Charles O'Hara
Build a Revolutionary War play set
Replay the Revolution today...

Before he was the father of our country, George Washington was Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. Now you can take General Washington through eight years of revolution, fighting Great Britain for the independence of the United States. Fight General Howe in New York in 76, surprise the Hessians at Trenton, innoculate the Continental Army against smallpox, lead the defense of Philadelphia in 77, suffer through the winter at Valley Forge, regroup General Lee's retreating men and battle General Cornwallis at Monmouth in 78, be a spymaster trying to outwit the British while discovering their plans, or defeat the British with your French allies at Yorktown in 1781. You control the action with the George Washington action figure. America's future is in your hands!
Use your research to write a 40-60 word informational paragraph for the package of your toy. It should describe the role your toy played in the revolution.

Each action figure, playset, or accessory needs a paragraph.

Each group member must author at least one paragraph and present one paragraph to the class.
Sustainability of a Revolution

Goal: Rebels want to change their identity.

Needs
1. Rebels/a fighting force (military)
2. Propaganda (diplomatic)
3. Resources (economic)
4. Public support/moral (diplomatic)
5. Leadership (diplomatic and military)
6. Alliances (diplomatic and economic)
7. Control of Territory (economic and military)

Military Ranks-Army

Enlisted
private
corporal
sergeant

Officers
lieutenant
captain
major
colonel
general
Infantry on foot
Calvary on horses
Artillery use cannons
Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes;

and accordingly
all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.

But when a long train of abuses...it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.

Sustainability of a Revolution

Goal: Rebels want to change their identity.

Needs
1. Rebels/a fighting force (military)
2. Propaganda (diplomatic)
3. Resources (economic)
4. Public support/moral (diplomatic)
5. Leadership (diplomatic and military)
6. Alliances (diplomatic and economic)
7. Control of Territory (economic and military)

“I long to hear that you have declared an independency. And, by the way, in the new code of laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make,
I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors.

Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could.
If particular care and attention is not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice or representation.”
Enlistments in the Continental Army were short at first.
6 months to 1 year from 1775 to about 1777.
Later extended to up to 3 years so troops wouldn't run out as the war went on.
Small pox
27:18

)
Toy market size of selected countries in 2009 / 2011 (in billion U.S. dollars)
2012 $84.1 billion worldwide

Revenue (in billion U.S. dollars)
United States (2011) 21.18
Japan (2009) 5.82
China (2009) 4.95
United Kingdom (2011) 4.93
France (2011) 4.58
Germany (2011) 3.85
Brazil (2009) 2.77
India (2009)2.09
Australia (2011) 2.47
Canada (2009) 1.87
Italy (2009) 1.78
Spain (2011) 1.53
Belgium (2011) 0.64
Austria (2011)0.54
Portugal (2011) 0.27
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