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1st Aid & CPR

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by

Gabriela Sanchez

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of 1st Aid & CPR

*Adults and children: 5 back blows and 5 abdominal thrusts (repeat cycle until they breathe or go unconscious)

*Infant: 5 back blows and 5 chest compressions with 2 fingers

*If person pregnant or too big for you: 5 back blows and 5 chest thrusts)
1st Aid & CPR
*Unusual Sights

*Unusual Odors

*Unusual Noises
*Avoid contact with blood or body fluids.

*Use protective equipment (gloves, breating barriers, etc.)

*Always wash hands/body with soap and warm water
*Laws that protect people that give emergency care, only if 1. Act in good faith
2. Do no further harm
3. Continue giving care until emergency professionals take
over
Recognizing an Emergency
Preventing Disease Transmission
Good Samaritan Laws
Responding to an Emergency
*Check-Call-Care*

*Check to see if there is an emergency

*Checking a conscious ill/injured person: ask their name, what happened, any pain, allergies, medical conditions, when they last ate/drank, etc.

*Checking an unconsious person: tap their shoulder and loudly try to "awaken." If no response, check their A-B-C's (Airway-Breathing-Circulation). Check A-B-C's for child. Check A-B for adult.
Check
Call
*Calling for help is often the most important action
you can take to help

*Note: Care 2 min. for a drowning victim, then call 9-1-1
Care
*If you choose to care for the person, always ask a conscious adult for permission to give care. If it's an unconscious adult, you have implied consent (permission to care).
*If it's a child/infant, you must first get the parent/guardian's consent if present; if no parent/guardian is present, you have implied consent.
*Don't move an ill/injured person because you can hurt them further, especially if there is a neck /back injury; the only exception to this rule is if there's a life-threatening condition present, then move.
Moving or Not Moving an ill/injured person
Emergencies
Recovery Position
If a person's unconscious but breathing, and you need to leave a person alone, place them in recovery position if possible (keeps their airway open and clear if he/she vomits).
Conscious Choking
Call Poison Control Center at 800-222-1222
Monitor ABC’s
If person is unconscious or if a life-threatening condition is present, call 9-1-1
Poisoning
Protect person from being injured (move objects that might cause injury).
Protect person’s head by cushioning it.
If there is fluid in person’s mouth, roll him/her on side & drain.
Monitor ABC’s & call 9-1-1 if seizure lasts longer than 5 min., if they stop breathing, or if they hit their head hard.
Seizures
The same as CPR, with the exception that you look for (and remove if possible) a foreign object between compressions and breaths.
Unconscious Choking
CPR (Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation)
When a person is not breathing and has no pulse!

*Adult- Cycle of 30 chest compressions & 2 breaths (2 hands in center of chest)

*Child- Cycle of 30 chest compressions & 2 breaths(1 hand in center of chest)

*Infant- Cycle of 30 chest compressions & 2 breaths (2 fingers in center of chest)
*When child is not breathing, but has a pulse, they only need rescue breathing.
-Tilt the head back with one hand,
and pinch their nose with the other.
-Seal your mouth around the child’s
mouth and give 1 breath every 3
seconds.
-After each minute, check ABC’s,
then continue cycle if needed.
Rescue Breathing—Child or Infant
*Recognizing a person in shock
-Restless
-Altered level of consciousness
-Nausea or vomiting
-Rapid breathing or pulse
-Pale, cool, moist skin
-Excessive thirst
Shock
*Care for Shock
-Call 9-1-1
-Monitor A-B-C’s
-Control external bleeding (if any)
-Keep person from getting too hot or cold
-Elevate legs 12 inches (if no broken/injured
bones)
-Comfort person
-DO NOT give person anything to eat or drink!
*Recognizing a Heart Attack
-Persistent chest pain or pressure
(longer than 3-5 min.)
-Chest pain spreading to shoulders,
neck, jaw, or arms
-Shortness of breath/troubles
breathing
-Nausea or vomiting
-Dizziness, light-headedness, or fainting
-Pale, ashen, or bluish skin
-Sweating
Heart Attack
*Care for a Heart Attack
-Call 9-1-1
-Have person rest comfortably
-Loosen any tight or
uncomfortable clothing
-Closely monitor ABC’s until
medical professionals arrive
-Comfort person
-Offer aspirin if medically
appropriate
-Be prepared to give CPR if
person stops breathing &
loses blood circulation
A blockage of blood flow to a part of the brain.
Signals of stroke
-Weakness or numbness of the face, arm, or leg
(usually on one side of the body)
-Difficulty talking or being understood when
speaking
-Blurred or dimmed vision
-A sudden severe headache, dizziness, or
confusion.
Care for stroke
-Call 9-1-1 & note the time that the signals began.
-Monitor ABC’s
Stroke
Call 9-1-1
Apply direct pressure
Elevate the injured body part if it does not cause more pain or injury
Apply pressure to artery above injured area
If severe bleeding continues, apply a tourniquet.
Severe Bleeding
1st Degree:
Top layer of skin burned, skin is red, dry and usually painful. Submerge burned area under cold water, cover wound with dressing and bandage.
2nd Degree:
Top layers of skin burned, skin is red, usually painful, with blisters. Submerge burned area under cold water, cover wound with dressing and bandage.
3rd Degree:
May destroy all layers of skin and some or all of fat, muscles, bones, and nerves. Cover loosely with a sterile bandage & call 9-1-1 or seek medical assistance quickly.
Burns
Call 9-1-1 if life threatening, or seek medical attention
Do not remove object
Place bulky dressings around the object to keep it from moving
Bandage the dressing in place
Monitor ABC’s or other life threatening conditions (shock, etc.)
Embedded Objects
Spiderbites/Scorpion Stings:
a few can make you seriously sick or can be fatal. Wash the wound, apply a cold pack to the site, and get medical help immediately.
Snakebites:
a few can make you sick or can be fatal. Wash the wound, immobilize the injured area, keep it lower than the heart if possible, and call 9-1-1.
Insect Stings:
are painful and can be fatal, especially if an allergic reaction occurs (difficulty breathing). If having difficulty breathing, call 9-1-1 or seek emergency attention.
Bites and Stings
Avoid moving the affected area, this may cause more pain and injury.
Immobilize the injured body part.
Seek medical attention immediately or call 9-1-1.
Broken Bones/Fractures
Call 9-1-1 or seek medical attention immediately.
Control bleeding.
Wrap severed body part in clean material, put in plastic bag, and put the bag on ice.
Care for shock and monitor ABC’s.
Severed Body Parts
Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke
Pale, weak, dizziness, nausea, rapid or weak pulse, rapid or slow breathing, change in level of consciousness.
Call 9-1-1, cool victim down slowly, give small amounts of cool water to drink.
Hypothermia and Frostbite
Shivering, numbness, discolored appearance, altered levels of consciousness.
Call 9-1-1, remove wet clothing, warm victim slowly, monitor ABC’s & shock.
Heat and Cold-Related Emergencies
Full transcript