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Study: Assessment of Sustainable Development in Zimbabwe
Transcript of Study: Assessment of Sustainable Development in Zimbabwe
Collapse of Economy
Ex Colony of The British Empire
Former (Southern) Rhodesia
Formerly part of Central African Federation
1980 with much violence
13.72 Million (2012)
Zambia $ 8,589,000,000 (2012 est.)
Botswana $ 6,259,000,000 (2012 est.)
Zimbabwe $ 3,314,000,000 (2012 est.)
2% other African
1% Colored (Indian)
Under President Robert Mugabe since 1980
GDP Total $10.978 billion
Per capita $837
HDI 173 (2012)
"At one point, a loaf of bread was Z$550 trillion."
1999 - 2009
Experienced a sharp drop in food production and in all other sectors.
The banking sector collapsed Farmers unable to obtain loans for capital development.
Food output capacity fell 45%, manufacturing output 29% in 2005,
Unemployment rose to 80%
Marshall Auerbeck. "Will the US turn into a modern day Weimar Germany?". Netrootmass.net. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
What Happened after?
Electricity production: 7.62 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity consumption: 12.54 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA)
Dlamini, N. R., & Dube, S. (2008). Studies on the physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological changes during the traditional preparation of Marula wine in Gwanda, Zimbabwe.
Nutrition & Food Science, 38(1), 61-69.
Mapako, M., & Prasad, G. (2007). Rural electrification in Zimbabwe reduces poverty by targeting income-generating activities.
Rural Electrification Agency (2002), Expanded Rural Electrification Brochure.
Desroches, G. V., & André, T. (2012). The BipBop programme: Providing access to reliable, affordable and clean energy with a combined approach of investment, offers and training. Field Actions Science Reports.
The journal of field actions, (Special Issue 6).
Vermot Desroches, G., & André, T. (2012). THE BIPBOP PROGRAMME: Providing access to reliable, affordable and clean energy with a combined approach of investment, offers and training. HAL
Faaij, Andr PC, and Julije Domac. "Emerging international bio-energy markets and opportunities for socio-economic development." Energy for Sustainable Development 10.1 (2006): 7-19..
√Kebede, B., Bekele, A., & Kedir, E. (2002). Can the urban poor afford modern energy? The case of Ethiopia. Energy Policy, 30(11), 1029-1045.
Martinot, E., Chaurey, A., Lew, D., Moreira, J. R., & Wamukonya, N. (2002). Renewable Energy Markets in Developing Countries*. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 27(1), 309-348.
Barnett, A. (1990). The diffusion of energy technology in the rural areas of developing countries: a synthesis of recent experience. World Development, 18(4), 539-553.
Najam, A., & Cleveland, C. J. (2003). Energy and sustainable development at global environmental summits: An evolving agenda. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 5(1), 117-138.
Smil, V., & Knowland, W. E. (1980). Energy in the developing world: the real energy crisis.
The Zim Dollar (Z$)
Creation of Value
Production, processing, manufacturing, creating a market, or virtually any sort of value-added-process cannot occur without the availability energy.
Schneider Electric - BipBop Program
"1.3 billion people have no access to electricity.
Schneider Electric is committed to tackle this challenge with the
Vision & Mission
Schneider's BipBop In Bengal
Schneider's BipBop initiative Zimbabwe
How Can Zimbabwe Develop with a Sustainable Development Agenda?
Evaluation of Sustainability in Development Projects Utilizing Renewable Energy Products in Zimbabwe
Presented in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science
Global Technology and Development
ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY
July 17, 2014
Lack of Infrastructure
High Rate of Unemployment
Access to Energy
Foster Economic Development
Creation of Value
Formation of Clusters
Sustainable Supply Chains
Does the project align with Sustainable Development?
Supply Chain Strength
Vermot Desroches, G., & André, T. (2012).
THE BIPBOP PROGRAMME: Providing access to reliable, affordable and clean energy with a combined approach of investment, offers and training
Desroches & Andre (2012)
"THE BIPBOP PROGRAMME: Providing access to reliable, affordable and clean energy with a combined approach of investment, offers and training."
Stronger the Supply Chain
Stronger the Sustainable Development
Vachon, Stephan, and Zhimin Mao. "Linking supply chain strength to sustainable development: a country-level analysis." Journal of Cleaner Production 16, no. 15 (2008): 1552-1560.
Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Sustainable Development Project
Based on the theories of Labuschagne & Brent (2005)
Designs of McConville (2006) and Chow (2010)
Labuschagne, C., & Brent, A. C. (2005). Sustainable project life cycle management: the need to integrate life cycles in the manufacturing sector.
International Journal of Project Management,
McConville, J. R. (2006).
Applying life cycle thinking to international water and sanitation development projects: an assessment tool for project managers in sustainable development work
(Doctoral dissertation, Michigan Technological University).
Chow, J. T. (2010). Assessment of Solar Home Systems (SHS) for Isolated Rural Communities in Vanuatu Using Project Lifecycle/Sustainability Framework (Masters thesis, Michigan Technological University).
Analysis of Scores
Feasibility of Project 13/15
Effectiveness of Measure 13/15
Theoretical Connectedness 14/15
Maintainability & Supportability 12/15
High Impact On Development
As All 4 Project Stages Score 12 and higher
Since the project was found to have a "High Impact" on development it is expected to have a positive impact on value creation and economic development.
This boost in activity and transactions will in turn create a self-perpetuating market that will further develop with inter-village sustainable supply chains
Range of Impact on Development
According to Vachon and Mao (2008)
Recommendations For Future Research
A more effective framework for analysis that is repeatable.
A measurement tool that is more precise, and more inclusive.
An evaluation system that accounts for a wider range of social, economic, environmental issues.
Framework for assessing sustainability level of a development project in its preliminary stage.
Synthesis of literature: Sustainable Development and Value Creation.
An alternate form of analyzing development projects.
What is Sustainable Development?