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Evolution of Birds

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Tristen Morris

on 15 January 2014

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Transcript of Evolution of Birds

Evolution of Birds
Birds started out with four digits as hands
Hollow bones began to develop, as well as the wish bone (furcula)
Compsognathus, Tyrannosauroids, and Oviraptorosaurs
Compsognathus gained hollow, cylindrical feathers
Dromeosaurids and Archaeopteryx
Dromeosaurids' feathers became closed and asymmetrical, as opposed to the branched, downy feathers of its ancestors
Living Birds
Today's living birds have toothless beaks, as well a fused wing digits
The first Avialans, such as Archeopteryx, evolved from small dinosaurs

Pterosaurs ruled the skies, and filled the ecological roles that birds do

Archeopteryx is the transition between feathered dinosaurs and living birds

Archeopteryx lived in what is now southern Germany, when it was far closer to the equator

The largest attained to about the size of a raven
Around 235 Mya
Evolved a reduction of the IV and V digits
This was around 225 Mya
They were small dinosaurs
Lost digit V, but II and III stayed about the same
Evolved 3 digits in hand
Lost digits IV and V; II became elongated
Around 210 Mya
Tyrannosauroids evolved tufted feathers and a reduced III digit
Oviramtorosaurs' feathers became dosed with barbs and hooks
Archaeopteryx's arms became longer, with the ulna longer than the femur
Archaeopteryx's second digit elongated
Short, feathered tails
Reduction of digit I, fusion of II and III
Loss of some phalanges
Late Jurassic
Archaeopteryx was thought to be the "missing link" between birds and dinosaurs when it was discovered in 1861
Compsognathus vs. Archaeopteryx
Full transcript