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Social Chapter 5: Europe's Late Middle Ages

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Hannah DeBiasio

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of Social Chapter 5: Europe's Late Middle Ages

Hannah DeBiasio Chapter 5: Europe's Late Middle Ages The late middle ages had many events- both good and bad. What we knew from before in the middle ages has almost all changed. Knighthood was almost eliminated, and many wars took up over a 100 year span. The people changed their views on life and what they believed, and slowly they began to realize that everyone should be equal- not matter of what status they were born into. In this Prezi i will tell you how all of these events came together to have what we have right now. Introduction The long bow was made- and serfs were usually the archers•The bows were very large and the arrows were very sharp. They could penetrate a knights armor
Longbows and firearms made metal armor useless• Monarchs could keep their power by using armies of archers•chivalry was a code every knight swore to•Under the chivalry they needed to protect women and children•All knights admired and practiced fighting and war. They saw this as their trade. •The word knight comes from the Old English word "cnight”, which means “a household retainer”. English people used the word cnight to describe the French mounted soldiers who first came to England after the Norman conquest of 1066. Knighthood During the beginning of the late middle ages a new weapon was created- the bow and arrow, which slowly eliminated the knights, and changed the way of fighting forever. Knights also needed a chivalry: their code of conduct, which i will also tell you about. Becoming a knight was a 3 step process, taking over 10 years. Knighthood and Chivalry •Knights did not always resemble the ideal knight of the minstrels. His code of honor and loyalty was sometimes applied only to members of his own class. Knights often acted violently toward people of low birth (serfs) •A knight who was guilty of cowardice or other serious misconduct, was disgraced by having his sword and his spurs broken. "Serious misconduct" usually was violations against other knights and their families. Chivalry •Needs to be 7-8•Handed over to another knight for training•Must be a Nobel•He would serve tables and work on the land• He would begin to learn how to fight and ride horses •The women of the household taught him to read and about literature Becoming a Knight: Page •Needs to be 14-15•He would be the knights body guard•Sent to another more experienced knight•He would attend his battles and fight along side him•He would learn how to use and care for weapons•Most could become a knight, but some couldn't afford the armor Becoming A Knight: Squire •21 ish in age•before the ceremony. They basted and kept vigil over their armor, often in a chapel•in the morning he would be dubbed and armed by his lord Becoming a Knight: Knighthood Was a bunch of battles mainly between the French and British. The war didn't quite last 100 years, and there was some spans of years between the battles of the war. They didn't fight in the winter. The Hundred Years War •Struggle between monarchs and nobles of France and England, lasted from 1338-1453•They fought in long truces and nobody fought in the winter•Began with the Norman invasion of England, a war about who should be king•King Edward III of England thought he had a stronger claim so he invaded France. •Over the war, the English controlled vast areas of France•King Henry V’s victory at Agincourt was the one last important English success during the war•extended over the reigns of five English and five French kings who fought for the control of France. This struggle between England and France actually consisted of a succession of wars broken by truces and treaties.•King Philip VI of France declared he would take over Guyenne, and King Edward III of England The Hundred Years War •English had archers, French didn’t•It was said that a arrow could penetrate a knights armor•France was defeated many times, but they could fight as well as the English. •France refused to fight with anyone of low status (archers) so they were not attacked in 3 battles Technology and Tactics The towns were first made as a place for serfs to almost "Escape" from the manors they lived on. The towns was a place where serfs could live peacefully and have better lives. All the towns people were trained in a specific trade. Town and Trade •Crusades opened eyes about trades in the lands•Over time Europeans began sending goods on ships•Traders first sold their goods at a local market•An escape from serf dome•People's goods were sent to other lands, and other goods were received in return Town At first, trades were seasonal•People would travel great distances to trade•The need for stability could be provided by a town, where permanent shops could be set up and protected Trade Leads to Towns •Every trade or craft was controlled by experts who together were called a guild•The guild would protect and if a worker got sick, the others would help pitch in food for his family •Trades people would only operate if they were part of a guild•They could only trade in the guild they belonged and trained for The Craft Guild •Money was not as much in importance as their social status•The town was home of middle class people•Towns people called bourgeois •Nobles thought trade was beneath them but they wanted finer things only available in towns•Middle class people with their money power and desire for freedom would soon end feudalism Social Changes that came with Trade •Towns drew in people waiting for freedom
•People finally had freedom to do what they wanted
•Feudal lords couldn’t control the people who lived in towns
•Many European towns can be traced back to the middle ages
•A charter let towns govern them selves
•Wealthy citizens in the guild usually controlled the towns New Freedoms •Most powerful citizens were those who belong to the merchant guilds
•Some guilds were very organized. By putting their wealth together, they were able to support and build their own navy
•Italy port cities: Genoa, Venice, and Naples grew into their own powerful city states thanks to the merchant traders New Powers The woman in the late middle ages were not able to do as much as the men. It said in the bible, that their lower status to the men was justified. Now, i will tell you what the women did, just to make the best of things. Woman in the Late Middle Ages •Had fewer advantages than men
•Referring to the bible, the church taught that women's lower status was justified
•Women tried to make the best of things
•All peasants had hard lives, often in poverty
•Town women were better off than the women on the manor
•Many worked as servants
•Women who were in a guild or married to a man in one, ended up the best
•As the towns grew in size and importance, many of the merchant families grew rich
•Women of wealthy families had many opportunities and a good education Women in the Late Middle Ages The churches role in the middle ages is what kept people together, socially and mentally. When the late middle ages came along, the churches became bigger, and people began to question the church's role and importance. The Church in the Late Middle Ages •Pilgrimages were very popular
•Showed that pilgrims took Christianity very seriously
•Pilgrims would take a journey to a holy place where a Christian saint had been martyred
•Favourite destinations were: Shrine of St. James at Compostela- Spain, Tomb of St. Thomas Becket – England, Holy places in Rome, The city of Jerusalem The Church in the Late Middle Ages: Pilgrimages •Churches in the middle ages were relatively small
•Sometime during the 12th century, they learned how to build larger and taller buildings
•Gothic churches were made with simple tools over huge periods of time
•during the 14Th century the catholic church began to lose authority Church Architecture •John Wycliffe believed that Priest's and Bishop's didn’t have authority to tell people what to believe
•He believed each person could gain salvation through what they believed,and not what they were told to believe
•The bible was only written in Latin at the time. He wanted to convert it into English so the towns people could decide right from wrong
•He was a noble so the church would’t prosecute him. He also had very powerful friends
•Nobles liked him because they were tired of paying heavy taxes to the church and the king
•He was also very popular in Hungary (from England) John Wycliffe The black death was a horrible plague that wiped out 1/3 of Europe. The black death didn't just change the population, it changed the economics of Europe and caused the Peasants' revolts. Social Upheaval: The Black Death •Italian ships returning from ports on the black sea brought back one of the most devastating disease in history: the black death
•Spread from person to person through fleas on rats, that lived on the medieval ships
•Diseased person developed: buboes (swollen lymph glands, round masses of tissues), and dark blotches on their skin. Vomiting blood, and a high fever
•25 million (1/3) of Europe died
•Whole villages were turned into ghost towns
•Many priest and nuns died while tending the sick
•Many people thought the black death was a punishment from God The Black Death Ruined the feudal system, as well the trading Black deaths Economic Effects •Called the “Jacquerie”
•Began after the French defeat at the battle of Poitiers in 1356
• In the northern country side the serfs revolted against their lords, killing them and burning down their land
•Ringleaders were hung, and villages burnt down The Peasants Revolts: France •The black death caused severe labor shortages on the country side and demesne’
•After the 100 years was a poll tax was approved, which took a fixed amount from everyone in England.
•2 serfs had enough, Wat Tyler, and John Ball, John believed everyone was equal under God
•A army of peasants marched to England, and when the gates opened they killed every Nobel they could find, and burned down many important buildings
•Tyler was killed by the lord mayor of London
•The revolt failed, and the serfs returned to their farms, where many were hung The Peasants Revolts: England •Rosenthal, Joel T. "Knights and knighthood." World Book Student. World Book, 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012.
•Allmand, C. T. "Hundred Years' War." World Book Student. World Book, 2012. Web. 6 Nov. 2012
Pathways Civilizations Through Time, Micheal Cranny Sources: King Henry V King Phillip VI of France John Wycliffe Unicorn- Extreme Courage
Fox-Cleverness
Fire- Zeal ( Energy and enthusiasm)
Sword- Warlike
Sun- Glory
Moon-Serenity
Tower- Fortitude and protectiveness
Silver- Peace
Blue- Loyalty and truthfulness
Green- Hope, joy and loyalty. Debiasio Shield
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