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Embryology

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by

vanessa franco

on 17 May 2013

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Transcript of Embryology

EMBRYOLOGY TIMELINE DAY 1: FERTILIZATION BY CAROLINA FRANCO DA SILVA Sperm joins the ovum
Zygote is created DAY 2 TO 3: CLEAVAGE The embryo starts to divide to form more cells DAY 4 TO 5: BLASTOCYST DAY 5 TO 6: IMPLANTATION BEGINS DAY 7 TO 12 : IMPLANTATION On Day 4 the Morula is created
When zygote divides to 32 cells it's know as a Blastocyst Blastocyst hatches and begins implantation into the endometrium Blastocyst is fully implanted
The growth of the placenta begins
The blastocyst inner cell mass differentiates into two layers: Epiblast and Hypoblast DAY 13 Primitive streak develops
Primary stem villi form DAY 14 TO 16 DAY 17 TO 21 DAY 24 TO 25 Gastrulation commences
Nothocordal process forms
Major cellular reorganization into three tissue layers: Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm Emergence of the vertebrate body plan
Neural plate and Neural groove form
Somites form
Primitive heart tube is forming DAY 22 TO 23 Pulmonary primordium forms
Myocardium forms and hearth begins to pump
First two pharyngeal arches form
Hepatic plate forms DAY 26 TO 27 Upper limb buds appear
Urorectal septum begins to form
Cystic diverticulum and dorsal pancreatic bud form
Pharyngeal arches 3 and 4 form DAY 28 TO 30 Lower limb buds form
Spleen forms
Motor nuclei of cranial nerves form
Ureteric buds form
Septum primum begins to form in heart DAY 31 TO 32 Spinal nerves begin to sprout
Greater and lesser curvatures and primary intestinal loop form
Secondary brain vesicles begin to form
Cerebral hemispheres become visible
Lymphatics and coronary vessels form DAY 33 TO 36 Hand plates develop
Atrioventricular valves and definitive pericardial cavity begin to form
Sensory and parasympathetic cranial nerve ganglia begin to form
Lens vesicles form DAY 37 TO 41 Foot plates develop
Pigment forms in
retinas
Major calyces of
kidneys begin to form and kidneys begin to ascend
Cerebellum begins to form
Nasolacrimal grooves form
Bronchopulmonary segment primordia form
The hindbrain begins to develop DAY 42 TO 44 Skeletal ossification begins
Elbows and tow rays form
Intermaxillary process and eyelids form
The heart begins to separate into four chambers DAY 45 TO 47 Kidneys begin to produce urine for the first time
Trunk elongates and straightens
Nipples appear on the chest
Urogenital membrane ruptures DAY 48
TO 51 Upper limbs bend at elbows
Primary intestinal loop completes initial counterclockwise rotation
The gonads form
Semicircular canals start to form in the inner ear DAY 52 TO 53 Brain is connected to tiny muscles and nerves
Nasal openings and the tip of the nose are fully formed
Anal membrane is perforated
Hands and feet rotate toward midline
Pericardioperitoneal canals close DAY 54 TO 56 Eyelids and auricles are more developed
Definitive superior vena cava and major branches of the aortic arch are established
Primary teeth are at cap stage
Upper lip fully formed
Clitoris or penis begins to form DAY 57 TO 60 Head is erect and rounded
External ear is fully developed
Upper and lower limbs are well formed
Intestines begin to migrate from the umbilical cord into the body cavity Primordial germ cells begin to migrate from wall of yolk sac
Cranial neuropore closes
Oropharyngeal membrane ruptures
Optic vesicles develop WEEK 10 TO 11 Basic brain structure is complete
Vocal cords form and fetus can make sounds
Fetus develops reflexes
Early facial hair follicles begin to develop
Sockets are formed in the gum lines WEEK 12 TO 13 Salivary glands begin to function
Sweat glands appear
Muscles function more smoothly and fetus is more flexible
Lungs develop further
Sexual organs distinguishing gender are now visible WEEK 14 TO 15 Respiratory and digestive system are more developed
Toe nails begin to grow from their nail beds
Ears are close to final position
Fetus is straighter
Torso grows rapidly WEEK 16 TO 17 Eyes are at the final destination
Fetus can blink
Ears move to final position
Fetus develops fingerprints
Circulation is completely functional
Nerves are being coated with myelin
The umbilical cord system continues to grow WEEK 18 TO 19 Lanugo appears on the head
Eyebrows begin to form
In female fetuses the ovaries contain primitive egg cells and the uterus is fully formed
Brown fat coats the lymphatic system
Placenta is fully formed WEEK 20 TO 21 Bone marrow starts making blood cells
Heart beat grows stronger
Testes of male fetuses begin to descend into the scrotum
Extremely rapid brain growth
Legs approach final length
Skeleton hardens
Hand strength improves WEEK 22 TO 23 Bones of the ear harden
Hearing is possible
Respiratory system continues to develop
Bones, muscles, and organs are growing steadily WEEK 24 TO 25 Blood vessels start to develop in lungs
Alveoli have developed and begin to produce surfactant
Fetal brain waves begin to activate auditory and visual systems
Eyes respond to light
Ears respond to sounds from outside the uterus
Nostrils begin to open
Permanent teeth buds appear high in gums WEEK 26 Lungs are capable of breathing air
Testes of male fetuses are completely descended
Sucking and swallowing improves
Eyes are partially open
Eyelashes are present
Forebrain enlarges MONTH 7 Lanugo hair has almost completely disappeared
Fetal brain's surface seems wrinkled
Rhythmic beating and body temperature are controlled by the brain
Head hair is present
Skin begins to smooth
Fetal body is two to three percent body fat
Legs draw up into the fetal position
Rapid brain growth continues and head size increases
Toenails are fully formed MONTH 8 Fetus begins to develop an immune system
Fingernails reach over finger tips
Eyes close during sleep
Eyes open during alert times
Eye color is usually blue
White fat builds up underneath skin
The pupil reflexes responding to light
Head hair grows thicker
Gums have ridges
Limbs begin to dimple at elbows and knees MONTH 9 Bones are flexible and ossification progresses
Intestines accumulate meconium
Body is round and plump with new fat
Chest is more prominent
The fontanels are still separate and can be pushed together
Fetus can display more than seventy different reflex system behaviors
Fifteen percent of body is fat BIRTH
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