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Comparison's of Learning Theories

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Jennifer Newman Hiscock

on 10 October 2013

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Transcript of Comparison's of Learning Theories

Comparison's of Learning Theories
Behavioral
Cognitive
Social
Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura
Effective Modeling
1) Attention
2) Retention
3) Reproduction
4) Motivation
Learning from One Another
One of the main concepts that make this theory stand out is that Bandura included a social element. The social element argued that people can learn from one another by observing behavior of others and than imitating or modeling these behaviors.There are 3 core concepts that are linked to this theory: People can learn through observation, mental states are important to learning, and learning does not necessary lead to a change in behavior.
Major Ideas
2) Mental States are Important: Bandura stated that intrinsic reinforcement was important to the child because they were able to develop a sense of accomplishment, pride and satisfaction when learning a concept. This allowed him to reconsider his theory as a cognitive social theory.

1) Observational Learning: Bandura completed a study on children, he found that children learn and imitate behaviours that they see in other people. T|hey can learn it either through live models, verbal commands, or through fictions in books and on television.
3) Learning does not lead to change: People who learn new information are not necessarily going to demonstrate a specific behavior. This brought about the Effective Modeling concept which included attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. In order to learn you must pay attention, retain the information presented, be able to practice or reproduce the learned behavior and become motivated to continue using the behavior.
Instructional Strategies
Keeping this theory in mind I would make sure that as an educator I represent myself as a role model. One that demonstrates a positive attitude, displays myself with poise and professionalism, yet still demonstrating a nurturing and sincere attitude. Since children are known to learn from observing others I would ensure that when presenting material and information I use proper language, tone and facial expressions. Lessons should be engaging, making it easier for children to pay attention. Using videos, stories, songs or plays can help them retain the information so they can reproduce it later. The use of technology in classrooms is ideal this day in age, the use of iPads and educational apps allow information to become concrete and visual.
Classroom Environment
Classrooms should be well organized with specific centers set up. A classroom routine should be implemented so that students have a focus daily, which in return will aid them in retaining information. The environment should contain educational areas where learning becomes a positive experience and children can feel a sense of pride and fulfillment. The educator should be seen as a role model, someone the students can look up to and aspire to be.
Stage Theory of Development
Jean Piaget

4 Stages
1) Sensorimotor
2) Preoperational
3) Concrete Operations
4) Formal Operations
Stages of the Theory
Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development in children. Before this theory was devleoped it was believed that children were not as competent as adults. Piaget disproved this theory when he completed a study that proved that children think in different ways than adults and are just as competent. He proposed that children are born with a basic mental structure in which all learning and knowledge is based.

This theory differs from others because it deals mainly with children rather than the entire population of learners. Development is the main focus of this theory, how the brain trains and develops rather than learning of information or specific behaviors that are learned. Piagets theory describes development in stages by age versus complexity of behaviors.
Teaching Strategies
http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Age Appropriate Activities
When teaching with this theory in mind, educators should make sure that the material being presented is age appropriate to the group of students. We should however remember that not all children learn on the same level even though they are the same age. You may have children with learning disabilities, and children who are on a different level than others. As teachers we need to keep in mind what is good for one, may not be good for all.
Montessori School
When I sit and think about teaching methods or the teaching environment that would relate to this theory I think about my current position as a Montessori preschool teacher. As a Montessori teacher I must present material to my students that is on their level. Having a wide variety of age groups in the classroom means that I must have material available to my students that reaches them on different levels. Children in a Montessori environment are expected to become independent learners, that is student led. They are to choose materials from the shelves that they are able to work with, and work independently. Therefore, as their educator, I have to place things readily available to them so that they can become successful. I believe you need a variety of materials and lessons that appeal to every age group or level of students.
Multiple Intelligence Theory
Howard Gardner
7 Intelligences
1) Linguistic
2) Logical-Mathematical
3) Visual-Spatial
4) Body-Kinesthetic
5) Musical-Rhythmic
6) Interpersonal
7) Intrapersonal
Multiple Intelligence Theory
This theory was developed in 1983 by Howard Gardner. It was developed to challenge the traditional beliefs that each person was born with a uniform cognitive capacity that was measured by various tests. Gardner stated that people were actually born with different intelligences, he stated there are 9 in total. Each individual is born with all 9 intelligences but they are not the same configuration or order. They are similar to finger prints, each unique to his /her owner. Howard believed intelligence was the ability to create a good product, or service that would be valuable in our culture, the ability to use a set of skills to solve problems in life, and the ability to find solutions for problems or gain new knowledge and information.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_multiple_intelligences
Teaching Strategies
When considering this theory as lesson plans are developed, one might keep in mind that it is important to know and understand our students. We need to assess them, find out what areas they are strong in, and what areas they struggle with. It is important to find out what order or sequence their intelligences are in. As educators it is crucial to know our students and to develop appropriate lessons that will help our students grow and learn. Using technology such as ipads, computers and smartboards can help introduce new information or help children retain information they were already introduced to. We should keep in mind that there is a variety of intelligences out there, and we need to direct our lessons towards children individually instead of the class as a whole.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/education/ed_mi_overview.html
Classroom Environment
Classrooms should have a variety of activities available to meet the intelligence of different children. Teachers should be actively involved in student learning and provide resources and and the necessary tools for students to engage in active learning through different methods. The classroom should be seen as a positive place, full of educational resources, books, and bright, attractive colors. The students and teachers together should develop a set of classroom rules, to keep order and control in the classroom. This will create a safe and secure workspace for students.
http://www.edutopia.org/mi-resources
Social Development Theory
Lev Vygtosky
3 Major Themes

1) Social Interaction
2) The More Knowledgeable Person (MKP)
3) ZPD: Zone of Proximal Development
http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html
Social Interaction VS. Development
Vygotsky has developed this theory to argue that social interaction has to happen before development can occur. Cognition is considered to be the end product of social behaviors and social and socialization. Being one of the theory's of constructivism, this theory has 3 major themes.

1) Social Interactions role in cognitive development.
2) MKO- The more knowledgeable
3) ZPD- Zone of Proximal Development
Major Themes
1) Social Interaction's role in Development: Vygotsky believed social learning happened before development, stating that every cultural development appears in a child twice in their life: 1) between people, 2) from within the child

2) MKO- The more Knowledgeable Other: This term refers to an individual who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner. Usually considered to be a teacher, coach, principal, parent. etc.

3) ZPD- Zone of Proximal Development: This is considered the distance between the ability of the student to preform a task under adult guidance or contribution from peers and the students ability to solve the problem on his or her own.
Teacher Strategies
When keeping this theory in mind, teachers should shift their roles a bit, go from feeding an empty vessel with vast amounts of information to working together with the students allowing them to take an active role in their learning. This transforms learning into a reciprocal experience for students and teachers. Educators should make sure material is engaging and peaks the interest of the students to help extend their current knowledge. Open discussions between teachers and students should be implemented because it allows the students to have an active learning experience.
Classroom Environment
Classrooms should be bright, organized and make the child feel safe. It should promote playing to allow socialization with other children in the younger age groups and group activities and games for socialization to develop in older children. Students should be set up in table groups of 5-6 children. This set up will give children the opportunity to know others in their classroom and feel more comfortable around them. When working on assignments, worksheets or discussions, small groups enable children to learn more effectively. They cna brainstorm together to come up with fresh ideas, and receive a broader context of the information they are being presented.
8 Stages
1) Infant
2) Toddler
3) Preschooler
4) School Age Child
5) Adolescent
6) Young Adult
7) Middle Age Adult
8) Older Adult
Stages of Development
Erik Erikson

Stages of Development
Erik Erikson developed a theory that presents the various stages of life a child will go through from birth to an older adult. In each stage he explains what the method of thinking and learning is for the child at each stage of development.

"It is human to have a long childhood; it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuoso out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him."
— Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994)

Erikson believed that the ego of a person existed from birth and grew more prominent as you reaqched an adult. He felt that the course of development was affected directly by mind, body and culture. That as we moved along further in our lives, the world changed, it became bigger and we had to realize that failure is cumulative.


http://lchc.ucsd.edu/mca/Paper/ce1993.pdf
8 Stages of Development
1) Infant (Hope): Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
Important factors are touch, mothers love and visual contact.
2) Toddler (Will): Autonomy vs. Shame
We learn to master skills such as walking, talking and feeding ourselves.
3) Preschooler (Purpose): Initiative vs. Guilt
We are able to mimic other adults around us, and take initiative in creating play situations.
4) School Age (Competence): Industry vs. Inferiority
We are able to learn, create and and accomplish a new set of skills, all while developing industry.
5) Adolescent (Fidelity): Identity Vs. Identity Diffusion
We look for our own identity's, work through social situations and learn about moral values, right or wrong?
6) Adult (love): Intimacy Vs. Isolation
We look for love, find a companion. Begin to start a family and develop a career.
7) Middle Age Adult (Care): Generativity Vs. Stagnation
Work is important, We tend to develop our lives around what is important for our family. Take charge role.
8) Older Adult (Wisdom): Integrity Vs. Despair
We develop integrity and pride, looking at our families and feeling accomplished. We accept death as our completion of life.
Teaching Strategies
Teachers should bring in activities and materials that are geared towards the specific age groups they are teaching. You need to think of outside influences that may be affecting the way your child is learning. Especially in the adolescent stages where bullying, dating and social conflicts are more common. In the younger grades, teachers need to realize how important the development of language is. What they learn now will carry them through the rest of the years. These years are the most crucial years to teach children knew concepts. Having a positive attitude and a safe environment will allow children to succeed at challenges and grow from them.
Classroom Environment
The classroom should have a positive environment, the children should feel safe and feel confident enough to express themselves. There should be a positive relationship between the educator and children, the teacher should be seen as a role model, someone the children can look up to and respect. Students and teachers should work collaboratively together to create a curriculum that is engaging and is of interest to teh children. Educators should be mindful of specific age groups, and learn effective ways to gain their trust and attention.
5 Levels of Needs

1) Self-Actualization
2) Esteem
3) Belongingness
4) Safetly
5) Physiological
Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow

Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow developed this theory in 1943 when he released his paper, "A Theory of Human Motivation." The hierarchy shows that humans are motivated to fulfill basic needs such as food, water and shelter before moving on to more extensive needs such as safety and security. This theory is most often placed in a pyramid structure, with basic needs located on the bottom of the pyramid and love, and intimacy at the top. As we move up the pyramid we are redirected from physiological needs to Self actualizing needs.
Physiological - Self Actualization
Needs
1) Physiological Needs: These are your most basic needs, such as food, water, air, shelter, and warmth.
2) Security Needs: These are the need for safety and security. These can include health care, steady employment, a safe and enjoyable neighborhood and shelter from the environment.
3) Social Needs: To feel belonged, or loved. Relationships such as family, friends and romantic companions can fulfill this need.
4) Esteem Needs: These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition, and accomplishment.
5) Self-Actualizing Needs: This is when people are more concerned about the needs of ones self. They are less concerned of opinions of other people and focus more on their personal growth. .
Teacher Strategies
When considering this theory, teachers must look at their students and understand the needs of his/her students. First of all, has the child met the most basic needs, their physiological needs? If this basic concept is not met by a child, this could be a major factor as to why their learning is being affected. The teacher than has a main focus, how to help this child meet the most basic needs of life and obtain food, shelter and clothes. If the physiological needs are met, the teacher should than focus on the other needs, such as esteem needs, feeling like they belong or they are loved. All of these needs when not met can affect a child in a negative way, and drastically affect their learning.
Resources
http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm
Classroom Environment
Since Maslows theory concentrates on needs of individuals, teachers should consider each need and how it affects the students. The first set of needs are the physiological needs. Basic needs that one needs to meet to sustain life. Teachers can try and introduce a snack program in their classroom to ensure all children are eating and not hungry. Feeding the brain will make it retain information more efficiently. Putting children in groups may help with the self esteem needs, and the need to feel like they belong. This will help the children feel comfortable and secure in their environment. Also the classroom should feel safe and secure to the child, they should feel like they can move throughout the classroom and not have any worries or be afraid to come to school. The teacher plays a major role in classroom environment, he/she should have a positive and nurturing attitude, and the children should feel like they can approach them and address any issues or concerns they may have.
ABQ Dramatic Arts
Comparison's of Social, Cognitive, and Behavioral Theories



Submitted by: Jennifer Hiscock
Student #: 101664468
Full transcript