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Chapter 2 (sections 1-4) : Singapore and Trade in Asia Before the 14th Century

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Siti Hafizah Subramaniam

on 10 February 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 2 (sections 1-4) : Singapore and Trade in Asia Before the 14th Century

Singapore and Trade in Asia Before the

14th Century

What does it mean to trade?
Trade in Asia before 14th cetury
Before 1st century, traders traded along overland routes like Silk road. Includes traders from Europe, India and China.
Conclusion
What is trade?
Most common form of connection between countries
Main form of trade was barter trade
People travelled long distances to visit places of worship or to find for places to buy/sell goods
people were exposed to new people, ideas and inventions in the process
Trade is transfer of ownership of goods or services from one to another, in exchange for something from the buyer.
Singapore developed into an important trading port under the British rule in 1819. And it continues to be one of the busiest ports in the world since 1980s.
Can you tell where these items originated from?
Goods traded along silk road
By 7th century, people had better resources and expertise to build better and stronger ships.
Able to Travel faster and safer by sea.
Soon, maritime trade became popular with traders and the main method of transportation.
Before 14th century, most traders who used maritime trade routes included ...
Traders from :
Middle East
,
China
,
India
, Southeast Asia(SEA)
This trade network created a demand for ports in Asia, especially along the
trade route between India, China and SEA
Overland route used since 1st century
Maritime route used between 7th to 14th century
Traders from
Middle east
Since Ancient times, trade existed between Mesopotamia(Iraq) and Indus Valley Civilization in India
7th-12th century, increased land and sea travel by traders from middle [e.g.: People from Persia(Iran) and Arab] east to SEA and China
cotton, ivory, oil, wool
Traders from
China
During Tang Dynasty, maritime trade among traders from China, Persia, India and SEA increased due to popularity of sea travel
10th century, removal of ban against private ships going abroad for trade--> increased maritime trade from 12th -14th century.
Silk and porcelain(ceramic wear)
The trade network before 14th century -
Who were they?
The trade network before 14th century -
Who were they?
Traders from
India
In 1st century, ancient Indians began using maritime routes for trades.
Their ships stopped at ports of various regions like Middle east, Burma, China and Malay Archipelago.
Spices, jewels, glass beads and perfumes
Traders from
SEA
People of SEA started trading even before arrival of Chinese and Indian traders
traded spices like cinnamon, cardamon and cloves as well as Dong -son drums

Rise of Maritime Kingdoms in SEA (1st - 14th century)
Increase trade between traders from India and China
Increased need for
stopover ports
along China-India maritime trade route
Hence, from 1st to 14th century, several ports including Temasek emerged in the Malay Archipelago
Why did the ports at the Malay Archipelago grow quickly?
1) Ports were strategically located
along main China-India maritime trade route.
served as convenient stopover ports for ships to be re-supplied with food&water and for repair
2) Ports served as collection centres for goods
produced in SEA, China and India
Traders from Arabia, India, China and Java exchanged goods at these ports
Wealth gained from trades allowed some of the ports to become small Kingdoms, known as maritime kingdoms.
In 14th century,
Temasek
emerged as an important port.
Why did it grow in Importance?
Why/How did Temasek's port grow in importance?
(Rise of Temasek in the 14th century)

4 Main Reasons
1) Fall of the Kingdom of Srivijaya
powerful maritime kingdom between 7th-13th century
controlled trade in Sumatra (western Indonesia).
13th century--> Srivijaya Kingdom collapsed and lost control over activities in western Indonesian Region
Hence, traders shifted their activities from the Sunda Straits to the Straits of Melaka.
Traders found route to China shorter when they used Straits of Melaka.
2) Role of Temasek as an Entrepot
Temasek was an
Entreport
Served as a regional centre for collection and distribution of goods
Presence of a rich
hinterland
kept Temasek supplied with special local products that were in demand
Served as midway meeting point--> traders did not have to travel long distances to each other's country.
Entreport
: where goods can be imported & exported
Hinterland:
Island area that supplies goods to a port
3) Advantages of Monsoons to Temasek
Temasek experienced monsoons at different times of the year and monsoon winds allowed traders to sail from theor countires to other parts of Asia.
E.g:
June & Sept : southwest monsoon --> transport traders from counties west of the Indian Ocean to Temasek
Oct & Feb : northeast monsoon transported traders back home from Temasek
Middlemen (agents of the traders) stationed at Temasek, facilitated trading between traders from West of Indian ocean and coasts of South China Sea
Traders found Temasek a convenient location to trade while waiting for monsoon wind patterns to change
4) Role of San Utama and Orang Laut
Sand Utama came from Palembang to Sg, in 1299 to escape the attack the Chola Kingdom
His coming contributed to rise of Temasek
He commanded a group of Orang Laut (people who were part of the local community in early sg)
Orang Lauts:
knew how to gather products from sea and forests for trade
good fighting & boating skills
served as warriors for Sultans and used Temasek as a base
Trade in Asia before 14th century and how maritime trade grew in prominence after the 7th century
Reasons for the Growth of Temasek as an important port
Reasons for rise of maritime kingdoms in SEA from 1st - 14th century
2 Main Reaons
What does the existence of these items tell us about Singapore's connections with the rest of the world before 1819?
CHAPTER 2:
Find out more about the connections Singapore had with countries in the world before 19th century. What kind of connections were these?
What Will I Learn Today ?
Reasons for rise of Maritime Kingdoms in SEA from 1st - 14th century
Why was Temasek specifically Important as a port?
What does it mean to trade?
Trade in Aisa
before 14th century
overland route(1st Century)
maritime route (7th century onwards)
In what ways can countries/people connect with one another?
Economic
Political
Cultural
Trade and exchange of goods
when a country conquers another
countries influence one another through the exchange of ideas about traditions, clothing, food
Full transcript