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Miller Function and Participation Scale
Transcript of Miller Function and Participation Scale
"A developmental assessment tool used by early childhood interventionists in order to determine how a child's motor competency affects his or her ability to engage in home and school activities and to participate socially in his or her world."
Purpose of M-FUN
Determine if the child possesses basic motor skills necessary for schooling in early ed.
Identify delays in gross, fine, and visual motor skills
Determine a child’s eligibility for services to address motor delays
Identify underlying neuromotor issues
Assist in development of early intervention programming
Track a child's progress in intervention programs
Background of M-FUN
Developed by Lucy Miller
Developed due to the need for a functional motor evaluation of skills and abilities that underlie participation in home and school occupations.
Based on the model from the ICF and OTPF, the M-FUN employs a competency model rather than a deficit model to assess children.
What is M-FUN?
Focusing on the child's functional abilities
Workbook activities and play activities
Population and Settings
Typically used for children with mild to moderate motor difficulties
Range of children 2 years 6 months up to 7 years and 11 months
Norms are included for this specific age range
Test can be utilized by special education, OT, PT, adaptive physical education and by early childhood interventionists.
Have experience in standardized test administration, scoring and interpretation, and detailed knowledge of motor development and sensory processing in young children.
M-FUN takes around 40-60 minutes for performance components, and 5-10 minutes for the participation component.
Adapt or modify the environment accordingly.
Administer items in order of Visual Motor, Fine Motor and then Gross Motor.
Do teaching and practicing of the item first, then do actual test item.
Complete Test Observations Checklist during or after the test
M-FUN’s assessment areas (Visual, Fine, and Gross Motor) were all based off several sources including the ICF, current academic research, and the OTPF.
Strong content validity
For internal structure correlations range from .47 to .58
A study was conducted to measure the relationship between M-FUN scores and the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP)
Two studies were done to show that M-FUN scores are comparable to the motor delay diagnosis of other health professionals.
The test shows good sensitivity and good specificity.
The reliability of M-FUN was examined using:
test-retest reliability-- .77 (Visual and Gross Motor tests) to .82 (Fine Motor)
internal consistency--.85 (for the visual motor test) to excellent .90 (for fine motor) and .92 (for gross motor test)
inter-rater reliability--0.91 for (Visual Motor), 0.93 for (Fine Motor), and 0.91 for (Gross Motor).
Find the Rabbit Game
Examines Visual Discrimination, Figure-Ground/Motor Accuracy, and Scanning/Sustained Attention.
Have 30 seconds to complete the Rabbit Game
There are 12 Rabbits on the page
Materials required are an appropriate age marker and a stopwatch
414 children over one year in 2004.
Children were diverse to represent the American population.
There were 8 groups ranging from 45-60 children in each group. Ages ranged from 2 years and 6 months to 7 years and 11 months.
6.8% of the children either received school services or required PT or OT due to having a specific condition.
Confidence Intervals included
Strengths and Weaknesses
Fun, age-appropriate games
Straightforward scoring criteria
Manual is very thorough and easy to follow
Includes checklists from various perspectives
Allows for practitioner to score each section independently
Opportunity for practice by giving cues to ensure child understands the task
Scoring can be time consuming (40-60 mins)
Limited age range
Requires both parent and teacher involvement
Reliability for Visual Motor section is fairly low for 7:0-7:11 age band (0.67)
Administrator has to be extremely observant of child's performance during test.
Now your turn to try!
Can be administered in a school, office, home, clinic or a quiet area.
Performance Component: On a 0-3 point scale. 0=unable to perform task, 1= partial mastery of task, 2=moderate mastery & 3= perfect mastery.
Participation Component: Child is marked as either, Almost Always, Frequently, Occasionally, Seldom or Not Successful.
Total Estimated Cost: $430
Administration Directions: $40
Miller L (2006) Miller Function & Participation Scales: Examiner’s manual. San Antonio, Texas: PsychCorp Harcourt Assessment.
Rihtman, T., & Parush, S. (2014). Suitability of the Miller Function and Participation Scales (M–FUN) for use with Israeli children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68, e1–e12.
Spirtos, M.; Glennane, R.; Cremin, K., (2007). The effects of Occupational Therapy services on fine motor skills and functional performance in early education, National Disability Authority; Evidence based practice in Early Intervention for children with disabilities aged 0-6 years.