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Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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Linda Rehill

on 12 October 2012

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Transcript of Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Atomic Bombings
of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki The morning of August 6th 1945, the people of Hiroshima are living, breathing, traveling, working, unknowing of what is coming.

Enola Gay is flying overhead, awaiting orders.

As the order is given 'It's Hiroshima!' history is changed forever. Thousands of people are killed in a intense flash of raditation and heat, and within the next 4 months up to 160,000 people die. the city is ruined and uninhabitable due to the radiation and destruction of a infrastructure. The horror continues, when, on the morning of August 9th, just 3 days later, a plutonium bomb is dropped on Nagasaki
Thousands of people are killed on impact, and the toll rises over the next few months to 80,000

•'Little Boy'- Uranium bomb, dropped on Hiroshima

•'Fat Man'- Plutonium bomb, dropped on Nagasaki

•European war had ended, pacific war continued

•Damage in Nagasaki was not as severe because the surrounding mountains sheltered it from the blast

•There were many lasting physical and mental health problems long after the initial bomb

•Stigma created surround Hibakushi (survivors and relatives of survivors) Background information Manhatten Project U.S.A, Canada and United Kingdom research into developing nuclear weapons -Began in 1839, but atomic bomb project began in 1942

-Led by Robert Oppenheimer

-Approved by Roosevelt

-40,000 employees

-'Race' with Germany

-$2 Billion spent

-No actual competition Trinity test First nuclear explosion Hibakusha (Explosion covered people) •Hibakusha survived the bombings
They were however affected by them

•Radiation sickness, birth defects, cancer and burns

•Generations after affected

•Prejudice against the Hibakushi- hiding
-July, 1945, Alamorgo, New Mexico desert

- Prototype bomb was dropped from 30m height

-The heat melted the metal tower it was dropped from and surrounding sand

-Successfully showed nuclear weapon strength

-'Ready for use'
-Sadako Sasaki was 2 years old in 1945

-She survived the blast but was 10 years later diagnosed with Leukemia

-Up to 2000 people died of leukaemia

-According to the ancient Japanese story she would be granted a wish if she folded 1000 paper cranes

-The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park

-Sadako’s story is a reminder of what war can do to innocent people. SADAKO SASAKI AND THE 1000 PAPER CRANES Pearl Harbour attack • President Roosavelt had been indecisive • Destruction of ships and planes
about joining the war

• December 7, 1941 • Initiated the American war effort

• American naval base, Pearl Harbour, Oahu, Hawaii • With british military, declaration of war on Japan

• 2,500 American sailors killed • December 11, declaration of war on the U.S.A by Germany and Italy • German scientists had successfully split a uranium atom.

• Einstein was a German refugee living in the U.S.A

• Heard the news of uranium atom splitting

• Wrote a letter to president F.D Roosavelt

• Urged an American Nucear weapons project Beginning of American Nuclear Research • Japan- strong at this time

• Tradition and honour- Fighting to the death and suicide attacks for Emperor Hirohito

• Well armed nation

• Cruel treatment of POW, many were ordinary people

• Japan occupied Malaya, Phillipines, Hong Kong, Singapore and Burma Japan • Weakened Japanese power in Pacific War

• Close to defeat

• Fear that Emperor Horito would be forced out of power Trinity Test • May 7th, 1945- European war over

• Pacific war still happening

• Japan and the Pacific war discussed at Potsdam Conference

• USSR agreed to not join Japan

• Call for Japan's unconditional surrender • Truman (U.S.A president- April 1945- January 1955)
told of atom bomb plan

• Immediate agreement and planning to attack Japan

• Requests of a remote area bombing barred from president

• It was 'No great decision'.

• Would scare the USSR, end war and test the bomb 'No Great Decision' Enola Gay • Bomber plane carried the bomb from Tinian Island

• Crew unaware of the weapon on board

• Kokura, Nagasaki or hiroshima (target decided during flight) 'My god, what have we done?'
-Pilot • 80,000 of 300,000 person population vaporised in heat/radiation

• Buildings crushed

• Inhabitants crushed, people on streets injured

• Fire consumed Hiroshima, people drowned

• Doctors/nurses killed, limited medical help

• Severe burns and debris injuries Nagasaki • Three days after Hiroshima bombing

• Supposed to be Kokura, but weather was bad

• Plutonium bomb used

• Geography minimised the effects- hill's stopped heat from spreading

• 45,000 people vaporised

• 3rd of the city flattened

•Hesitant to surrender- honour of the emperor 15th of August, Japan surrenders, emperor kept as figurehead Microcephaly Acute Radiation
-7 or 8 countries have nuclear weapons

-Others have the technology

-Organisations like the United Nations aim to prevent the weapons being used The atomic dome The Cold War Between the U.S.A and USSR We can only wonder whether it was the right decision, and remember the huge losses and future damage that brought the end of World War 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY
My Hiroshima-by Junko Morimoto; 1987
Hiroshima: The Story of the First Atom Bomb-by Clive A. Lawton; 2004
A Place Called Hiroshima-by Betty Jean Lifton and Eikoh Hosoe; 1985
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