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Social Studies 2013

Based on the ideologies, Daoism, Confucianism, and Legalism.

Ellie Formisano

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of Social Studies 2013

Daoism, Confucianism, & Legalism The Three Ideologies When Were they Created? The Main Idea Confucianism Daoism Legalism Pros and Cons Confucianism has two main aspects, or ideas. These two are, the relationship between elders and children, which is called Filial Piety and the idea of being kind to all, which is called Ren. The relationships between people is very important in the Confucian ideology because this is how Confucians felt people learned to behave. There are five main relationships that are focused on in Confucianism. The other main belief, Ren, also known as Jen, is the belief that being kind to one another will create social harmony. Daoism is an ideology that revolves around a humans connection to the Earth. The word Dao means "way" or "path". Laozi believed that the correct way to go through life is that one should follow a path that works in harmony with nature. He compared the chaos of the time he was living in (Warring States Period) to the peacefulness of nature and decided that people should strive to listen to nature in order to gain harmony. My overall opinion is that Confucianism is the best ideology to rule. It is a fair middle-ground between the harsh ruling of Legalism, and the free spirited Daoism. It sets rules in place which structure the kingdom, unlike having no rules in Daoism which I find a little too loose for problems to get solved, and unlike harsh rules which are to cruel to be used (in my opinion) in Legalism. Although out of all three Legalism was the only ideology to successfully create social harmony, I don't believe that the cruelness bestowed on the people was worth the reward. By Ellie F All three of these ideologies where thought of during the Spring and Autumn Period and during the Warring States Period, which were both in the final stage of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. During the Warring States Period, 7 powerful kingdoms overthrew all other kingdoms and were fighting for the top seed, overall ruler. To try to come up with a way to create social harmony in the midst of the chaos, three professors came up with three ideologies, Daoism, Confucianism, and Legalism. These three concepts were three main ways people lived their lives. Legalism was put into action during the Qin Dynasty which came after the Zhou Dynasty. Confucianism and Daoism began to be used during the Han Dynasty which was after the Qin. Confucianism and Daoism are still used up to this day around the world and helped to shape China's history. All three of these ideologies, Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism were striving for the same goal, to have social harmony throughout the kingdom. Each ideology tried to reach the goal of harmony differently. The beliefs of how to live your life, how much government should impact your world, and the overall meaning of life, was taught differently for each of the three ideologies. People to this day still disagree on what ideology would be the best to rule a kingdom. We proved this true by having a group discussion about which ideology we preferred. The reasoning was different for everyone, even if we chose the same ideology that would rule best. Legalism was the only ideology that was fully successful in creating complete harmony out of the three ideologies. My Life & the Ideologies What is an Ideology? An ideology is a system of ideas that forms the base of ruling groups or individuals. In the case that we are studying, these three ideologies were thought of to try to solve China's social problems during the Eastern Zhou Period. These ideologies where formed to rule the people, but each of the three had different ways of ruling. The way they were constructed was based of the personal beliefs of professors that molted their ideas into an ideology for the way people should live their lives. These ideas of the different professors became the three ideologies that I am discussing. Filial Piety Ren/Jen The 5 Relationships Father to Son
Husband to Wife
Ruler to Subject
Older Brother to Younger Brother
Older Friend to Younger Friend The Three Ideologies by Ellie F.
The End
Thank You for Watching! Legalism is the harshest ideology out of the three. It was based off of the belief that the fear of cruel punishments would keep people from misbehaving, therefore creating social harmony. Legalism was the main ideology used, and was the only one that actually resulted in harmony throughout the kingdom. Was the reward worth the sacrifice? This is a controversial point, because so many people were harmed while enforcing these punishments, yet the fear of them, created a social compatibility that was not reached in any other dynasty. The Fear of Harsh Punishment A pro to Confucianism was that although the respect in
relationships may seem forced, it created a harmony that
didn't involve harsh rules or living alone, like Legalism and
Daoism both have.

Another pro to living under Confucianism is that one of
its main aspects is all about being kind towards others, and
in result people will be more harmonious. This idea is called
Ren. I think that Ren is a really great concept because it is
a simple, yet effective way of achieving the overall goal of
social harmony. I also wrote about how much I like this
concept in the section of how Confucianism connects to my
life because I believe that it is a great part of Confucianism! Filial Piety comes from Confucianism. Its concept is all about respect from children towards their parents (especially the father). The devotion to a person's parents and family members. Being so devoted to one's parents teaches a child how to behave and act properly. This respect shown towards the parents is required in Confucianism. Parents wouldn't always respect there children back which is a negative side to the idea of Filial Piety. People felt that he who respected his elders would never be disrespected, therefore a social harmony of respect towards all would be created. There are five main relationships that are attached to but not part of Filial Piety, they are part of ancestor worship. Ren is the other main belief in Confucianism. It revolves around the idea that being kind to all people will create a kingdom with social harmony, which was the main goal of each ideology. Ren is also described as humanity, well meaning and kind. Being kind to everyone is a very hard task, therefore keeping Ren constantly in mind is challenging for most people. Confucius believes that you if set your thoughts on humanity and always keeping Ren in mind you will be free from evil. Legalism's main strategy of scaring citizens out of misbehaving was accomplished by the brutal punishments that people received if they did do something wrong or illegal. A few of these punishments were: Confucius Created Confucianism, one of the three ideologies. Confucianism Pros and Cons A con to Confucianism is that I personally feel that the respect that Filial Piety requires is forced and isn't a true respect to elders. Some relationships may be true honor to elders, but I feel that if I was in the position I wouldn't feel respected back, therefore my frustration would cloud the feeling of respect I am supposed to have towards my elders. Confucianism in my Life Legalism Legalism was created during the Spring and Autumn and 7 Warring States periods in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. Legalism had two main founders. Their names where Mencius and Xunzi. They lived in different time periods but their ideas where combined to create Legalism, which would be used during the Qin Dynasty (221 BC to 206 BC). There views and ideas evolved into Legalism. Mencius Xunzi Bibliography Mencius was born 373 BC and died 288 BC. Xunzi was born 310 BC and died 220 BC. (Overall Thoughts) Pros and Cons A pro to Daoism is that its virtues are very free
and allow people to express there own opinions and
feelings in life. I find that self-expression is a huge
pro in the case of Daoism, because it has the most of
it compared to the other two ideologies.
Another pro for Daoism is that it respects nature
the most out of all three, which is another virtue that
I value. For insitince in Zhuangzi's stories, most of
them chose an alternet path that is much better for
people and the enviorment. An example is that
instead of chopping down the tree, Zuangzi
suggested keeping it for it provided great shade. A con to Daoism is that it is very much based on living in solitude. Most people felt that this allowed almost no social interaction, which is a very big part of having a social life. With no social interaction most of your life is spent alone.
Another con to Daoism is that a lot of citizens thought
the overall idea of Daoism is good, but how will leaving society and not dealing with social problems at all heal and restore social order. If no one did anything about social issues, then nothing would be solved. Daoism Was used during the Han Dynasty which lasted from 206 BC to 220 CE. People still practice Confucianism to this day. It was a more practical solution to the issues China was having during the Warring States Period compared to Daoism. Confucianism is intertwined with my life because although I don't have as strong of respect towards my parents as required in Filial Piety, I definitely believe that respect towards your elders is key. People will respect you more if you respect them (ie. treat each others the way you would want to be treated). Although in Filial Piety the children were rarely respected back, today you most likely would be. Another aspect of Confucianism that mirrors my life is the thought of being kind no matter what, which is what Ren stands for. Making gestures of kindness can change someones day in the littlest and could make them feel more optimistic. Being kind towards other, no matter the size of the impact, can create a chain reaction. The result of being kind towards other could eventually result in social harmony, which was Confucianisms goal and the goal of communities to this day. More Connections Legalism's Pros & Cons
A con was that Legalism's main stratify, that did result in social harmony, was the fear of harsh punishments. When someone did get punished though, amputation, or even death where possibilities. These threats are horrific, and I feel like the reward of social harmony didn't make up for the sacrifices of many people. Laozi Lived from 604 BC to 517 BCE. He wrote the Dao De Jing, a book full of sayings and poems expressing Laozi's views and opinions on life. This book would be one of the most important in history. Go With The Flow One of the ways Daoism can be summed up is by one of its main ideas, going with the flow.
Laozi thought that since people are such a small part of the universe, that it was foolish to interrupt the natural flow of life. Trying to mess with the fragile balance of life would create disorder, such as the current disorder Laozi was living in. If people went with the flow, things in time would unknot themselves and everything would be resolved. Lived from 551 to 478 BCE.
He lived during the Warring
States Period. Text Book: The Story of Ancient China by Suzanne Struass Art Yin and Yang Laozi believed that there wasn't total evil or total good. This connection has to do with Yin and Yang, because you always have a little evil inside the good and vice versa. There is always an element of yin inside of yang and yang inside of yin. All of nature corresponds to the relationship between these two. This approach to life, there is always going to be an equal balance if you go with the flow, became know as living under Daoism. Daoism, along with the other two ideologies was created during the Spring and Autumn Period and the 7 Warring States Period during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty by Laozi with help from Zhuangzi. Daoism began to be used during the Han Dynasty (206-220). People still live by its beliefs today. Living in Solitude Laozi also believed that all things are independent, which is part of the reason why Daoism means that you live in solitude. The other reason is that Laozi believed that social interaction led to rivalry greed, and anger, which can all escalate into war. This is why Laozi and other Daoist preferred to lead their lives in solitude, which also allowed them to think about the natural world. No Government The ideal government for Laozi was having a ruler that did barely anything. Keeping out of people's lives, letting them make their own decisions on the way they want to live their lives. The ruler would simply set a good example for people of accepting things for the way they are. "The best government was that which governed least." - The Story of Ancient China Zhuangzi Zhuangzi lived around two centuries after Laozi and wrote a book that also impacted Daoism. It was called The Zhuangzi. It was filled with fantasy stories about how when things are thought of as useless for being what humans desire of them, in fact the thing there good at is their true use. The overall point in all of his stories is that everyone should have a life style that is fitting to their strengths and weaknesses. Trying to be something you aren't leads to unhappiness. For example, in one story a lumberjack complains that a huge tree cannot be cut down to be used for lumber, because the limbs are to thick for that job. Instead, Zhungzi replies that the tree is useful for things even better, providing shade on a hot sunny day. This alternate route doesn't involve harm of any kind and still points out the positive job that the tree solves. The message that everything has its purpose in life is one that is strong throughout The Zhuangzi. The Zhuangzi (example story) "The man who withdraws from the world finds it; by giving up power, he becomes powerful; by not desiring riches, he becomes rich." Laozi Saying Legalism in my Life Daoism in my Life "One who is not a man of humanity (Ren) cannot endure adversity for very long, nor can he enjoy prosperity for long."
- Confucius A pro to Legalism is that it was the one and only strategy that was completely successful in creating social harmony. Another pro that Legalism had was that
even though it was so awful it did have
some positive results, other then social
harmony during the Qin Dynasty. Some of
these results are: the unification of language
the end of feudalism
standardized weights and measures
and more... getting a limb amputated
being tattooed
execution As you can imagine, these threats kept people in line for the most part, for people feared if they misbehaved they would receive a horrible punishment such as the ones listed above. I do not agree with Legalism, and it is my least favorite out of the three ideologies. As stated in my "cons" section of legalism, I find the punishments to outweigh the benefit. One small way the Legalism overlaps with my life is that when I do something wrong, I do get punished from my parents. Nothing nearly as extreme as what the punishments were in Legalism, but there is the same concept behind both. That if you get scolded once you have misbehaved, hopefully you have learned your lesson and won't do it again. This doesn't always work today in my family, but that is the one similaity I have with Legalism. I wouldn't want any other aspects of it in my life today because I feel that they are all to cruel. Daoism is my favorite ideology out of the three. I like Daoism's virtues the best overall. One of my favorite aspects of Daoism is the idea of "no one can change nature's plan". That means, why try to change nature's plan, and instead just accept things the way they are, for everything will work out in the end. I think that this is a very powerful message, and one that is important to this day. Self Expression Another aspect of Daoism that makes it my favorite ideology is that it allows people the most self expression. I mentioned this in the "pros" section on Daoism, because I think that self expression is a key aspect that all people should have. Today, in the United States, we have the ability to express what we feel. That has helped us become the country we are today. In Daoism, the people's ability to make their own decisions in life without government imputing, was and still is today, a rare ability. The fact that Daoism promoted little government, so that people could live their lives without being told what to do, is a big draw to me and a big part of why I like Daoism the best. He was one of the best know followers of Confucius, even though he lived 200 years after him. Mencius wrote on of Legalism's most important books, The Discourses of Mencius, in which he wrote down all of his ideas. He believed that conflict would be resolved when the social ideals of the three leaders of the Western Zhou Dynasty were restored. Another point he made was that if the ruler lost the mandate of heaven, the people had the right to rebel against him. Mencius had great respect for intellectuals, he thought that working labors should be governed by people who thought with their minds. He therefore created a social hierarchy in which this was installed. Mencius' Hierarchy 1. The Ruler
2.The Scholars and Officials
3. The Farmers
He considered craftsman and merchants "parasites" and soldiers as "beasts". They were not included in his hierarchy. Xunzi was less optimistic about human nature then Mencius was. Xunzi believed that people were born evil and naturally weak. This is why such strict rules were enforced, because he felt like laws and harsh punishments would force people to be good. He also felt that in the days of The Western Zhou, rituals were a very important concept because they helped to maintain social order. Xunzi wrote his ideas down in another book that is also one of the most important books to Legalism. The book is called, The Xunzi, with 32 pages. Daoism is my favorite ideology to live by because I like its message the most. The message of going with the flow and, everything will work out in the end, is peaceful and true and I think is a great motto for Daoism. Although I don't think its best suited to run a kingdom, for it doesn't have enough structure for people to be able to solve social and political issues, I think that it has great meaning and I would like to live under Daoism more then the other two ideologies. My Favorite to Live by Shapes from
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