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Chapter 6: Personality Factors
Transcript of Chapter 6: Personality Factors
Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (5th edition)
H. Douglas Brown Brooke Kenna and Bhoke Lumumba Eight Affective Factors in Second Language Acquisition Motivation Chapter 6: Personality Factors Affective Domain The emotional side of human behavior which involves a variety of personality factors, feelings both about ourselves and about others with whom we come into contact.
5 levels of affective development Self-Esteem
Attribution Theory & Self-Efficacy
Willingness to Communicate
Extroversion Most frequently used catch-all term for explaining the success or failure of any complex task
Theories of Motivation
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation Receiving People must be aware of the environment surrounding them and observe situations, phenomena, and other people. Learners show willingness to receive and give a stimulus their controlled or selected attention. Responding A person commits themselves, in at least a small measure, to a phenomenon or person. Person is willing to respond voluntarily without coercion. Valuing Worth is placed on a thing, behavior, or person; rather than just accept a value, the person pursues it, seeks it out, and wants it. Organization Determining and establishing interrelationships among values, and establishing a hierarchy of values within the system. Value System Individuals become characterized by and understand themselves; the person acts consistently based on values he or she has internalized and integrate new information into total philosophy. Self-Esteem The most probable and pervasive aspect of any human behavior.
We refer to this factor as the evaluation which individuals make and maintain with themselves through an expression of approval or disapproval and beliefs in their self.
People’s self esteem derives from the accumulation of experiences with themselves and with others and from assessments of the external world. Attribution Theory and Self-Efficacy This theory is where the focus is on how people explain the causes of their own successes and failure. Self-efficacy deals with a second language learner’s feelings of capability to carry out a given task as well as external factors. Willingness to Communicate An underlying continuum representing the predisposition toward or away from communicating, given the choice (p. 157) Inhibition The concept that is under the notion of self-esteem and self-efficacy. All human beings, in their understanding of themselves, build up sets of defenses to protect their ego. Risk-Taking When learning a second language, or even practicing in the first language, individuals must learn to gamble a bit, try out new hunches about the language, and take a risk being wrong. Anxiety The subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the autonomic nervous system. Empathy A process of putting oneself in someone else’s shoes; this is not to be confused with empathy. In learning a new language, communication requires a sophisticated degree of empathy because of the immediate feedback to the hearer (p. 165).
We should all be EMPATHETIC LISTENERS! Shouldn't we?!?
What do you think? Extroversion Extent to which a person has a deep-seated need to receive ego enhancement, self-esteem, and a sense of wholeness from other people as opposed to receiving that affirmation within oneself (p. 166)
Not necessarily the person that is the life of the party! Theories of Motivation Behavioral: Anticipation of Reward; drive to acquire positive reinforcement. Likely to be at the mercy of external forces
Cognitive: "The choices people make as to what experiences or goals they will approach or avoid, and the degree of effort they will exert" (Keller, 1983, p. 389)
Constructivist: "Social context as well as individual personal choices" (Williams & Burden, 1997, p. 120)
*Fulfillment of needs is rewarding, requires choices, and must be interpreted in a social context (Brown, p. 169) Instrumental and Integrative Orientations Instrumental:
Acquiring a language as a means for attaining instrumental goals
Examples: career advancement, translation, etc.
Learners wish to integrate themselves into the culture of the second language group and become involved in social interchange in that group (Brown, p. 170)
Within these orientations, motivational intensity must be considered; high versus low intensity Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation WHAT MOTIVATES US?!?!
Does the desire to learn come from an outside factor or from within?
Intrinsic = Inside
No apparent reward except the activity itself
Extrinsic = Outside
Driven by reward from outside and beyond the self Personality Types and Language Acquisition How much does personality affect your motivation?
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers, 1962)
Table 6.3 of the Brown text (p. 177)
Take the test!
http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom How does this affect how we teach? How do we best motivate students?
Suggestions to consider (Brown, p. 181)
Method of presentation (enthusiasm)
Student choice and self-discovery
Students' development of learning and communication
Student autonomy and independence
Cooperative negotiation with a "reasonable challenge"
Value System Five Levels of Affective Domain Questions to Consider 1. Think about the 8 affective factors in this presentation. Choose three of the factors and discuss how they affect your own learning; are you highly motivated by these factors? Then, give an example of an activity that might encourage your students in each of the three areas you chose.
2. On page 173 of his text, Brown poses the following question: "which form of motivation (intrinsic or extrinsic) is more powerful? ". Do you agree or disagree with Brown's suggestion that "our growing stockpile of research...favors intrinsic orientations, especially for long-term retentions"? (p. 173).Think about your own experiences and your own classrooms (if you are currently teaching); do you tend to rely on one more than the other? How, specifically, do you structure activities so that students are both extrinsically and intrinsically motivated? References Brown, H.D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th edition). White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
Personality test based on C. Jung and I. Briggs Myers type theory. (n.d.). HumanMetrics - online relationships, personality and entrepreneur tests, personal solution center. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/jtypes2.asp