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Transcript of Rwanda Genocide
• Traditional Beliefs Daily Life • Rwandan people consume very simple foods
• People of lower status consume goats meat and milk
• Alcohol consumption is very limited
• In the past clothes were made from anything you could find in nature
• Now a days, in Rwanda dress like people in the west
•The language called Kinyarwanda is spoken throughout Rwanda
•Swahili is also spoken but only near the border with Tanzania (Food, Clothing, and Languages Spoken) The Hutu and Tutsi People •In 1994 the country of Rwanda consisted of 3 groups of people
•Hutu people were much smaller than Tutsi people
•The majority of Hutu people were agricultural workers
•Tutsi people were much tougher and warrior like
•Were seen as two different social classes, Tutsi people had a lot more wealth
•Tutsi people were lighter skinned Life During the Genocide • Identification Cards were carried by all
• Government Radio Broadcasting made it easier to find Tutsi people
• Hutu Machetes
• Paying to be killed with a bullet instead of machete Hutu militia men standing over Tutsi bodies Dead bodies of Tutsi people It was common to see dead people in the streets. This created additional fear for Tutsi people. A large number of machetes were imported into Rwanda by the Hutu government to give to the Hutu people. Media and its role in the Rwandan Genocide Radio Print Media •The Radio became a propaganda weapon was used to demonize Tutsi people
•In June 1993 the radio station “Radio-Television Libre des Mille Collines” was formed
•Radio was government controlled after the start of the genocide
•People ran around with a machete in one hand and small radio in the other •Kangura a weekly newspaper joined Radio-Television Libre des Mille Collines in its hate propaganda
•“Ten Commandments of the Hutu” Media and its role Internationally •Two ‘tribes’ of African ‘savages’, mindlessly slaughtering each other
•Refusing to write about the genocide
•No reporting up until 3 weeks into the event
•Many countries were not involved with Rwanda politically
•Examples: New York Times said that the fighting had “diminished in intensity” 4 days after genocide had started
•Examples: Western Organizations reported that the fighting was happening in the capital city Prophets Romeo Dallaire Prophetical Criteria Contributions -Before the genocide in 1993 Dallaire was sent to assist the United Nations as a Force Commander
-Dallaire was in charge of educating the United Nations with information on the planned attacks that were about to occur
100 days of slaughter began, the rise of the genocide, the UN departed from Rwanda and did not want to take part in peacemaking efforts
-Dallaire decided to stay in Rwanda and devote himself along with other soldiers to carry out their conscientious decisions to help the Rwandans
-Dallaire commanded that soldiers provide a safe haven for tutsis around Kigali
-Saved around 32,000 lives during the genocide -Challenged the army/soldiers in Rwanda to not destroy innocent lives
-Helped guide Rwandans to safety (encourage better life)
-Was a personal example of heroism and bravery to show to society that he cared for others
-By witnessing massacre, motivated him to co-operate with helpless Rwandans Paul Rusesabagina Contributions -Rusesabagina had been working at the Hotel des Milles Collines as an assistant manager
Eventually earned a promotion as a full-time manager at the Dimplomate Hotel
-When genocide began he was taking on his manager position in both hotels
-Overtime began letting refugees into the hotels to stay for safety
-Rusesabagina would bribe and offer money to Hutu guards to let his guests and refugees stay in the hotel, and to not harm them
-Cared for refugees and provided electricity and water for more than 1200 people and had saved their lives during this harsh time Prophetical Criteria -Instead of fleeing the country he stayed to help others
-By letting people stay in his hotel he provided them safety and by saving their lives he gave them a future
-Became a demonstration for other situations in other countries of what a good Samaritan is, and provided comfort for people in need no matter the consequence
-By growing up with both Hutu and Tutsi parents, realized the help that others needed coming from his personal perspective on the ethnic division. Carl Wilkens Contributions -Was in Rwanda doing research and the genocide started he decided to stay and help, being the only American to do so
-Wilkens along with the Gisimba Orphanage located in Kigali managed to save more than 400 woman and children
-Wilkens had connections with various Rwandan generals and soldiers, and were able to provide food and water
-Carl Wilkens along with Jean-Francois Gisimba risked their lives to collect needed supplies for the orphanage
-Wilkens helped transfer the women and children in the orphanage to St. Michael Cathedral and were saved from Hutu killers Prophetical Criteria -Showed that he cared and loved for people that were in need
-Be rescuing refugees, he encouraged a better life for orphans and widows and brought them to a safer environment
-He decided to stay in Rwanda when he had a chance, he showed enthusiasm and passion
-By going through the genocide and the experiences he endured, he was able to come up with a positive outcome in creating his organization to help with enlightening others of situations occurring throughout to gain response “I promised never to let the Rwandan Genocide die because I knew that Rwandans didn’t have much power internationally and certainly didn’t have the resources. I felt it was my duty having witnessed it, and having stayed to witness it, that I had to talk about it and keep it going.”
– Romeo Dallaire “I’ve become a humanitarian and I never thought I would become one. And, as a humanitarian, I wanted to take this message on a wider scale, to raise awareness of what happened in my country so that the international community can help others who suffer now.”
– Paul Rusesabagina Artistic
Expression Poetry Poetry, Music, Movies, Literature & Art Children of Rwanda
Known and unknown are the children of Rwanda
Victims of war and genocide,
Though not with us now we know you’re at peace,
We who survived will remember you.
Ten years onward our hearts still troubled
By lack of justice for survivors,
Help our leaders, bringing peace and hope,
Also preventing the same tragedies.
Will you join me now, remember lives lost,
Will you join me now, pleading to all,
To learn the lessons, that at any cost,
Genocide must end, forever more
- Reverend Francois Murenzi Music Million Voices -Wyclef Jean Movies Shooting Dogs Sometimes in April A Sunday in Kigali Shake Hands with the Devil Munyurangabo The Day God Walked Away Kinyarwanda (2005) (2005) (2006) (2007) (2007) (2009) (2011) Hotel Rwanda (2004) Literature Art Art in Rwanda •Launched in 2004 by Lily Yeh
•Two-fold program which dealt with the grief of the 1994 genocide and offered education, development and hope for life in the future.
•Implemented projects and launched programs to transform the physical and human environment of the Survivors’ Village through ART, health, community, and economic development initiatives.
•It is said that “this multi-year, multi-dimensional art project expands the boundaries of art as a vehicle for healing and transformation of individuals, families and community.”
•The art project engaged 100 - mostly female-headed - families with several children from the Rugerero District near Gisenyi
•They have completed a beautiful Genocide Memorial Park.
Healing through remembering
Healing through storytelling, art making and sports
Healing through creating hope for the future The Rwanda Healing Project Project Goals: Building the Genocide Memorial Park Genocide Memorial Park Finished “this multi-year, multi-dimensional art project expands the boundaries of art as a vehicle for healing and transformation of individuals, families and community.” Julius Guzy Ntarama Church Massacre Alisa's Story -Rwanda is a country which lies in central Africa. The capital city is Kigali.
-The official languages spoken are Kinyarwanda or French, but Swahili is also widely spoken
-In Rwanda, the people living there raised cattle. The people who owned the most cattle were called “Tutsi” and everyone else was called “Hutu”
-It wasn’t until Europeans came to colonize the area that the two terms took a racial role
-The Germans were first to colonize Rwanda in 1894
-When the Germans lost their colonies after world war one, the Belgians took control over Rwanda. The Belgians made each person have an identification card labeling whether or not they were a Tutsi or a Hutu.
-The Belgians first gave the Tutsi all the leadership positions, but eventually switched the status of the two groups and let the Hutus, the majority of the population, be in charge of the new government
-In 1994, there was immense tension between the Hutus and the Tutsis in Rwanda
-This tension grew when Hutu extremists launched plans to destroy the minority Tutsi population, resulting in Genocide
-In just 100 days, 800,000 Tutsi were slaughtered Who are the Hutu and Tutsi People? -April 6, 1994, president Juvenal Habyarimana of Rwanda was killed when a missile shot his plane out of the sky over Rwanda’s capital city of Kigali
-Everyone on the plane was killed
-Hutu extremists profited the most from his death. Within 25 hours after the crash, Hutu extremists had taken over the government, blamed the Tutsi for everything that happened and begun the slaughter
-Most of the killing was done with machetes, clubs or knives
-Violence spread extremely fast over the next several weeks after this. Killers would go door to door killing everyone who was a Tutsi, including women and children
-Many Tutsi were often tortured before being killed. Some of the victims were given the option of paying for a bullet so they would have a quicker death, but most were not
-Thousands of Tutsi women were raped before being killed while others were kept as sex slaves
-Many women were brutally tortured before being killed, such as having their breasts cut off or having sharp objects shoved inside of them
-Thousands of Tutsis tried to escape by hiding in churches, hospitals and schools
-One of the worst massacres of the Rwanda Genocide took place on April 15-16 1994, at the Nyarubuya Roman Catholic Church. A Hutu encouraged the Tutsis to hide there assuring them they would be safe.
-The killing began with grenades and guns but soon changed to machetes and clubs. It took 2 days to kill the thousands of Tutsi who were inside The Event that Sparked the Genocide -To further degrade the Tutsi, Hutu extremists would not allow the Tutsi to be buried. Their bodies were left where they were killed. Many bodies were thrown into lakes and rivers Corpse -During the Rwanda Genocide, the world just stood by and watched
-Many notified the UN about the planned genocide including some government leaders from Rwanda
-Some people have said that since the Hutu moderates were killed in the early stages then some countries believed the conflict to be more civil war rather than a genocide. Other research shown that the world powers realized it was a genocide but they didn’t want to pay for the needed supplies and personnel to stop it. No matter what the reason the world should have stepped in and stopped the slaughter. The World Stood by and Watched - The Rwanda Genocide ended only when the RPF took over the country. They were a trained military group consisting of Tutsis who had been exiled in the earlier years, many of whom lives in Uganda. The RPF were able to enter Rwanda and slowly take over the country. In mid July 1994, when the RPF had full control, the genocide stopped. The Rwanda Genocide Ends