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The Odyssey

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Hayden Smith

on 5 March 2013

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Transcript of The Odyssey

By: Hayden Smith Plot Diagram:
Beginning Continued Beginning and Story: Continued Beginning and Story: Conflict: The beginning of Odysseus’s stories in The Odyssey revolves around a simple problem, and that is his return home to Ithaca. While this may seem like a simple objective, the Greek world of mythology and classical writing soon intertwine into the problem and confuse Odysseus on his journey including the interference of Cyclopes, seductive women, and addiction to lotus plant fruits. The beginning of the book is brought to life with background information pertaining to the Trojan War. When Odysseus begins explaining his stories his main goal is to return home, and it begins with Sailing from Troy up until he reaches an island of lotus-eaters who persuade Odysseus’s crew to eat lotus plant fruits and forget the intent of their journey. The crew’s main goal converges into finding more lotus plant fruits instead of returning home. This obstacle is the first of many for Odysseus and his crew members. Once off the island, Odysseus and his crew found themselves amongst a land of Cyclopes and evil creatures that lurk with one eye and receive favoritism from certain Gods. Polyphemus is the Cyclopes who inherited the stretch of mainland that Odysseus and his men decided to investigate. Polyphemus returned later that evening and despite the judgment of the crew, Odysseus wished to see the beasts in person. This selfish decision endangered the crew who were left to devise a swift plan that involved blinding the Cyclopes and leaving under the bellies of his sheep herds. The Cyclopes that Odysseus and his crew encountered was the son of Poseidon who, after hearing his son’s prayer to avenge him, created a storm that wrecked the ship of Odysseus and his followers. Odysseus and his crew move along to the land of the dead later in the story in retrieval of a sword and eventually onto the stories of the Sirens and Scylla Charybdis. Later in description of the times that Odysseus endured twenty years have passed as stated by the narration in Part two of the book. Athena disguises Odysseus as a beggar when he returns home again and sees the suitors who have occupied his home, as well as his old dog, Argus. The stage is now set for the plot diagram revolving around the conflict, resolution, and vertical theme for the development of Odysseus in his perspectives as a hero. Perspectives of a Hero: The Odyssey Introduction: The Odyssey is a classical book that depicts the many journeys of the Greek warrior Odysseus. Pearson Success Net illustrated several parts of the entire book and focused around Odysseus’s time after the Trojan War and his attempts to return home to Ithaca. Odysseus is empowered by the Gods who favor him, and driven by his desire to return home and greet his wife, Penelope. Athena, the Goddess of Wisdom and meaningful battle continuously encourages Odysseus on his journeys and supports his prayers, unlike Poseidon, who despises Odysseus and acts against him at some points in the book. The excerpts from the book begin amongst captors who Odysseus promises stories in exchange for his freedom to return home. The stories are various in causes, but all entail Odysseus cunning personality and self-centered point of view. Odysseus maintains his own perspectives of a hero and often turns to himself over his crew when in search for assistance; however, all five Regis Jesuit Graduate at Graduation pillars are seen within Odysseus by the end of the Excerpt story readings. The main conflict in The Odyssey is Odysseus struggling to find his way back home to Ithaca and overcoming obstacles along the way. The conflict is stretched out across the plotline of the story very well in the book as Odysseus continuously overcomes himself and assists his crew members in finding the right path back home. As seen throughout the plotline and description of the beginning of part one, Odysseus challenges many greater hindrances and conquers the task at hand before returning back to the course that will bring him home. Despite moments where Odysseus and his crew members were seduced into the love of lotus fruits or the sirens, they had to surpass the conflict and find their way back to the kingdom of Ithaca. Resolution: The conflict in The Odyssey parts one and two concludes with the return of Odysseus to Ithaca, where he is reunited with his wife. The assistance of the Goddess Athena made a large difference amongst his appearance and re-entry back into the city to meet the suitors and his wife. The conflict was solved with the slaughtering of the suitors that occupied Ithaca and the reunification of Odysseus with Penelope. Odysseus himself returned on account of him telling the stories so that he would have ships to sail back to Ithaca: the stories that were told resolved the main problem themselves because no obstacles stood in the way after he told his stories. The final obstacle was Odysseus recalling all of his adventures so that he may complete his journey and solve the conflict of returning home again. End: Part one and two of The Odyssey from a Pearson Success Textbook concluded with a triumphant ending which was resolved by Odysseus’s return back home in Ithaca and the reunion with Penelope. After overcoming many obstacles that tested his hero characteristics, Odysseus is embraced by his family even from his transformation as a beggar by Athena. Odysseus’s perspectives of being a hero have altered from the beginning of the book because the obstacles that he overcame changed him and allowed for a climatic ending when Penelope hosted an archery contest to see who would win. Odysseus was the winner because he was in fact the only man who could complete the task and win the prize of Penelope’s marriage. The family finally accepts Odysseus again once he has passed Penelope’s archery test and conquered much larger obstacles along his treacherous path back home. Character Map of Odysseus
Internal and External Conflicts: -Odysseus is genuinely concerned with his appearance and image, which leads him to have an internal conflict when feeling superior over his crew members in always making better decisions than them. •At the end of the story it is a reasonable judgment to imply that Odysseus is a dynamic character because he changes his internal conflict and does not worry about his self centered appearance and returns back home disguised as a beggar
-Odysseus constantly describes himself in order to boast for his well known Greek name.
•Huberous: overly obsessed with his cunning.
-Main Internal conflict is finding his way back home again to Ithaca. -External conflicts for Odysseus all relate to him having a way to overcome the obstacles in his way of returning back home. •Odysseus tells stories in his last obstacle to finally receive ships and return home. Odysseus Described -Odysseus is described as the protagonists of the story who is not only recovering from war, but in a think internal war himself.
•Pg. 1047
-Known as a very cunning and self-proclaimed warrior who is favored by Athena, especially in his final attempts to return home.
-An independent warrior who acts primarily based off of his own decisions.
-Is more concerned with his actions and how they will make him look than that of the actions of others (In the Cyclopes’ chamber home he relies only on his decisions) •Pg. 1053 -Married to Penelope, although he cheats on her; has a son named Telemachus. Odysseus' Key Sayings -“I am Laertes’ son, Odysseus… this fame has gone abroad the sky’s rim”
•Pg. 1047 Line 20-Constantly describes emotion and his opinion over how matters should be handled in any situation
-“What of my sailing, then, from Troy? What of those years?” •Pg. 1047 Line 38-39-“How do you like the beating we gave you?”
•Pg. 1060 Line 433-“I took my twelve best fighters and went ahead”
•Pg. 1050 Line 137
•This quote seems very simple, but is in fact, an important saying because Odysseus always speaks of how he began the situation in every obstacle he overcomes to make himself look even stronger. Odysseus's Key Actions -Odysseus fights to save his own life before any of his followers, especially at the beginning of the story. •Later in the obstacles that Odysseus faces he moves into save his crew before himself, which is a prime example of a dynamic character.
-Odysseus ‘jabs’ the Cyclopes in the eye with a burnt staff. •Pg. 1056 Line 330-333
-Tells stories throughout the entire book, which ironically is the last and final task he completes before returning home.
-Changes into a beggar with the help of Athena when he returns to Ithaca to meet his wife and kill the suitors. •Saves his family before himself in this scenario (Including faithful wife Penelope)
-Despite Poseidon’s wrath against Odysseus, he continuously sails because he can face his fears more than he can run from them Vertical Plot The theme of the story is that time changes humans and forces them to evolve and conform because just like Odysseus, natural obstacles will take their course in an individuals life and either better them, bring them back home to where they began, or internally change humans. Odysseus underwent all of three of these transformations beginning with the conquering of obstacles and then later returning back home and physically regaining himself. His last alteration was internal change and occurred over time by facing his enemy and sailing the last and final sea home to be a dynamic character. Odysseus changes with the accomplishment of three new perspectives of a hero. Odysseus' Actions, Results and Motives: Action: Odysseus stabs the Cyclopes, Polyphemus, in the eye with a burnt staff.
Results: The Cyclopes is blinded, but still must carry his everyday life and tend to his sheep.
Motives: Being the smart and cunning man that he is, Odysseus planned on the outcomes as his motive and ultimately planned on returning home. Continued Actions: Action: Odysseus encounters the witch goddess Circe, who drugs Odysseus’ men and transforms them into swine (All transformed into pigs except Odysseus)
Results: Odysseus listens to the instructions from Hermes and avoids Circe’s sword and drugs, which forces her to return the men to there humanly form.
Motives: Odysseus’s motive was to save his men from being turned into swine and return home, especially with Ithaca now in sight. Continued Actions: Actions: Odysseus travels to the land of the land of the Cimmerians to offer sacrifices and burials in attraction of the dead.
Results: The drunken shipmate begs for a proper burial after breaking his neck during their encounter with Circe Motives: Odysseus was attempting to fulfill his promises with Circe and attract the dead by the river before returning home. Continued Actions: Actions: Odysseus listens to the instructions of Circe and avoids Charybdis (The sea monster) as well as the whirlpool by sticking close to the sides of the cliffs as instructed
Results: The men stare down upon the six headed beast, while six men where killed by the Charybdis without control
Motives: The motives were internal yet again for Odysseus as his goal was to reach Ithaca with as little annoyance as possible on his trail of obstacles and rough adventures. Graduate at Graduation-Odysseus Hero Map: Love:
-Many Times Odysseus shows an act for love but at the same time sounds as though he resents it.
1. “I have been determined long by calypso, loveliest among goddesses, who held me in her smooth caves to be her heart’s delight”
•Pg. 1047 Line 29-31
-Odysseus cares for his crew as he does for his wife and very tenderly addresses them sometimes before men prepare to die.
2. “I addressed them, sore at heart: Dear friends, one more than one man or two” •Pg. 1071 Line 685-687
Religion:
-Odysseus often acts more superstitious than religious, but does show his respect to the gods
1. “What of those years of rough adventure, weathered under Zeus?”
•Pg. 1047 Line 38-39
-When in times of trouble or despair, Odysseus prays to Gods, showing that he is religious.
2. “I pondered how o hurt him worst, if but Athena granted what I prayed for… I thought would serve my turn.”
•Pg. 1054 Line 263-265 Grad. at Grad. Continued Open To Growth:
-After sailing for seven days, Odysseus must search Hades and the land of the dead to help his men.
1. “We bore down on the ship at the sea’s edge and launched her on the salt immortal sea… With bitter sore dread upon us.”
•Pg. 1064 Line 526-530
-A large step in growth can be loosing a fear and the Sirens helped Odysseus and his men lose the fear of death.
2. “Then we die, with our eyes open, if we are going to die, or know what death baffle if we can.” •Pg. 1071 Line 689-690
Committed To Doing Justice:
-Odysseus often acts selfishly but still commits himself to his shipmates when it is only needed most.
1. “Deep heart at sea, while he fought only to save his own life, to bring his shipmates home.”
•Pg. 1045 Line 7-9
-Even though Odysseus often does what is right, it may appear that his actions are wrong despite what it really correct.
2. “Here’s liquor to wash down your scraps of men, taste it and see the drink we carried.”
•Pg. 1054 Line 298-299 Grad. at Grad. Continued Intellectually Competent:
-Odysseus is described as a well-rounded and skilled man who understands his opponents well.
1. “Learned the minds of many distant men, and weathered many bitter nights and days in his deep heart at sea.” •Pg. 1045 Line 6-8
-It is always apparent that Odysseus knows who he is as a man, and exactly where he stands.
2. “I am Laertes’ son, Odysseus. Formidable for guile, in peace and war, this fame has gone abroad sky’s rim. My home… of Ithaca…”
•Pg. 1047 Line 18-22 Literary Devices: Apostrophe:
-"So the Will of Zeus would have it"
Page 1052 Line 207
-"Zeus will avenge the unoffending guest."
Page 1052 Line 215
-"His Ships went down under Poseidon's blows,"
Page 1114 Line 6194
-All of the above quotes are apostrophe because while the characters (Often Odysseus) make reference to them, they are never actually present. The God's listed are an absratction and not present.


Continued Literary Devices:
Symbolism:
-"This was Argus, trained as a puppy by Odysseus,"
Page 1096 Line 1165-1166
-This quote represents Odysseus's dog by acting as an allegory, or a symbol for the lost time that he was not at home. Argus remembers Odysseus and displays his welcome home on a symbolic level that relates his journey to his relationship with his dog: Steadfast. Hyperbole:
-"O Father, all my life your fame as a fighting man has echoed in my ears."
Page 1094 Line 1088-1089
-This quote is a hyperbole because it exaggerates the presence of Odysseus's father and also the power of his voice echoing his entire life. Continued Literary Devices: Imagery:
"He saw the townlands, and learned the minds of many distant men and weathered many bitter nights and days in his deep heart at sea... They killed and feasted on the cattle of Lord Helios, the sun, and he who moves all day through heaven"
Page 1045 Line 6-14
-This passage from The Odyssey displays imagery because the narrator is recounting the tough times that Odysseus and his men endured. The passage continues to speak of the many rough encounters that they had and also accounts for details in imagery for the reader to discover. Continued Literary Devices:
Simile:
-"I leaned on it as a shipwright turns a drill in planking"
Page 1056 Line 333-335
-This final literary device is a classic note, but also a uneasily identified simile. The comparison is a simile because it is comparing Odysseus leaning to a shipwright turning a plank with the word 'as.'
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