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The components on an information system

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Ha Eun Lee

on 6 November 2009

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Transcript of The components on an information system

The components of an information system Hardware and software There are 2 parts to all computer systems:
Hardware
Software Hardware parts of the computer that you can touch and handle Software word used for the actual programs that allow the hardware to do a useful job without software hardware is useless Hardware is the collective name give to all the devices that make up a computer system e.g. basically these devices may be split into:
Input devices, which are used to get the data into the computer
central processing unit, which is the brain of the computer
backing storage , which consists of the disk drives used to store data when the power is switched off
output devices, which include such units as printers and VDUs, which are used to provide output in the form of printouts, screen displays, etc. A simple computer system backing store central processing unit
CPU input device output device software is made up of series of instructions
that tell the computer what to do Why use computers? computers are extremely fast
they are very accurate
can keep large amounts of information in a small space
can work continuously for 24hours a day
can do some jobs that would be impossible without them Drawbacks in using computers computers can replace people
computers hold personal information which may be misused
problems arise when computers cannot be used
staff need to be trained Processing data 'processing' is doing something to the data processing includes:
calculating
sorting
searching
storing
drawing The central processing unit CPU processes the raw data and turns it into information 3 main elements of the CPU:
control unit, responsible for co-ordinating the input and output devices
arithmetic and logic unit in which all the calculations and logical decisions are made
immediate access store, which provides immediate memory for holding data and programs immediate access store (IAS) is on a chip or a series of chips inside the computers. Data held here can be accessed immediately, unlike data held on disk, which can take some time to load output device input device control
unit arithmetic
logic
unit immediate
access
store backing storage 3 main parts of computer are arranged
white lines are the data signals passing between
the various sections or units
red linds show the signals that are used to control the
peripheral devices The 2 types of signal that pass between
the main processor and the other hardware control signals- these include signals sent out by the main processor to the printer to tell it to be ready to receive some data
data signals- these are the groups of binary digits that are used to represent characters (letters of alphabet, numbers, etc.) Types of computer there are 3 types of computer
micro-computers
mini computers
mainframe computers micro-computers are the computers that you are most likely to encounter at home or in school
different types include Apples, Acorns and PCs personal digital assistants (PDAs) PDAs are small, hand-held devices which you can use to organise a busy schedule Palmtop computers small computers that usually contain a limited no. of applications laptop and notebook computers bigger than PDAs and palmtops and have a set of facilities almost identical to the larger PCs Mainframe computers large, powerful computer wich is capable of supporting large no.s of terminals

banks, bulding societies, large insurance companies, the utility companies (i.e. gas, electricity, water) all make use of these powerful mainframe computers Mini computers have a size, power and cost somewhere between those of microcomputers and mainframes Portable data entry termainal (PDET) hand-held devices that are used to capture data away from a main
computer-system

data can be entered into the terminal using a barcode reader or the built-in
keypad, or a combination of the two then they can be immediately sent
to a main computer via a radio link Peripheral devices devices outside the CPU but under its control

they may be input devices, such as keyboards, used to get the data into the computer or output devices, such as printers or storage devices such as disk drives Microprocessors single chip that performs the functions of a CPU

they are used to control devices such as washing machines, video recorders, etc. almost all electronic device uses it Embedded computers (micro-processors) serve as the 'brains' of a larger piece of equipment or machine

basically are miniature computers, their software is stored in the computer's own electronic circuits, not on disks

found in devices from toasters and mobile phones to aircraft, etc.
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