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Ornithology Taxonomy

Test 1

Kathryn Lisko

on 16 March 2011

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Transcript of Ornithology Taxonomy

Ornithology Lecture Test 1 1. Look at the pictures and their characteristics
2. Zoom in to reveal the taxonomic order Paleognathe: 'Old Jawed' Neognathe: 'New Jawed' Can fly, but not strongly Anisodactyl toes Forest birds
Neotropical Realm Reduced Sternum Tinamiformes 3 front-facing toes
No hallux Neotropical Realm
Grassland Herbivore Rheiformes Very large semi-plumes Two forward-facing toes Fast Runners Struthioniformes Nostrils on bill tip for
smelling bugs underground 4 toes projecting
mostly forward Australian Realm
Nocturnal Dinornithiformes Casque: horn-like crest Blueish-purple head 3 toes projecting forward Australian Realm
Casque used for display and aggression Casuariiformes Cosmopolitan
Precocial young Arched Culmen Thick Leg Bones Spurs on tarsi of males Galliformes Dorsal-ventrally compressed bill Webbed feet, except hallux Precocial young
Lamallae: Teeth-like ridges
Sexual Dichromatism
Cosmopolitan Anseriformes Long beak Fused bone flippers Webbed, rear-projected feet Southern Hemisphere & Galapagos
Fat Layers for Cold
Use rock nests or put eggs on feet Spheniciformes Webbed feet, flat tarsi Long bill Monogamous for life
Northern Hemisphere Legs start by base of tail Gaviiformes Procelliformes Tube nose Pelagic: over sea for long time periods
Burrow nesters
Long wings Elongated bill Can carry young on back Cosmopolitan
Lobed Toes
Pre-hatching vocalization
Build floating nests Podicipediformes Phoenicopteriformes Long, decurved bill Long legs Pantropical except Australia
Mud nests
Webbed feet Long Bill Lacks a syrinx-claps bill to make noise Powderdown feathers produce wax when crushed Ciconiiformes Pelecaniformes Totapalmate webbing Kleptoparasitism: steal food and nest branches Decurved Bill Talons Diurnal
Highest copulatory rate of birds Falconiformes Gruiformes Long beak Slightly webbed feet Cosmopolitan
Polyandrous Suborders:
Lari: Gulls
Alcae: Terns
Pterocli: Sand Grouse Charadriiformes Columbiformes Round Head Strong iridescence Cosmopolitan
Produce milk from epithelial cells Zygodactyl Toes Cere Pan-tropical
Arboreal fruit eaters
Social & intelligent Psittaciformes Opisthocomiformes Food ferments in crop
Reversible Anisodactyl toes: move to zygodactyl Ethiopian Realm
Live in thick vegetation Musophagiformes Zygodactyl Toes Eye Ring Highly arboreal
Obligate Brood Parasitism
Hard egg shells Cuculiformes Facial Disk with ear opening along edge Large eyes No documented extra-pair copulations
Do not build nests
Reversed Size Dimorphism Strigiformes Large head, eyes, and mouth Elongated Rictal Bristles Highly aerial
Flying Insect Prey Caprimulgiformes Reduced feet,
pamprodactyl toes Hover to consume nectar
Most time is spent aerial
Cosmopolitan: Swifts
Western Hemisphere: Hummingbirds
Heart 30% of biomass, 500-1000 bpm
8 rib pairs
Fewer down feathers to disperse heat Apodiformes Crest Arched Bill Anisodactyl toes
Reversible digits 1 & 4 Long tail Ethiopian Realm
Communal Roosting Coliiformes Arched bill/culmen Heterodactyl toes Long, serrated tail Pantropical except Australia
Vertial posture
Strong irredescence Trogoniformes Coraciiformes Large bill Syndactyl toes Cavity nester
Cosmopolitan: Terrestrial & Aquatic
Cooperative breeding Long, stout bill Zygodactyl toes Elongated tongue with sticky barbs
Escavators: food under tree bark
Cosmopolitan Piciformes Suboscines/Tyranni Ocines/Passeres Passeriformes Done!
Full transcript