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STUDY GUIDE – Rise to Globalism- Reagan & the Evil Empire (C
Transcript of STUDY GUIDE – Rise to Globalism- Reagan & the Evil Empire (C
-Escalated the Arms Race
-Massive Defense Spending Increased Defense expenditures
-Dual policy in Middle East of Support for Israel and Israeli interests as ally to US in Middle East while also supporting Middle East dictators and cutting deals with Iran in the interest of US security. Reagan had few successes in the middle east.
US & MIDDLE EAST
Lebanon:The US sent insufficient forces of Marines to Lebanon who became hostages, instead of peacemakers. Following the capture of U.S. marines, the US sent. war ships just outside Beirut. The fighting among multiple factions then escalated even further and Reagan was eventually forced to withdraw. American presence in Lebanon was incendiary. Reagan didn’t make peace in Lebanon or positively impact the region.
Reagan leaves US with $3trillion Debt
(heavy borrowing from Japan)
U.S. and Central America
-US Kills Prime Minister Maurice Bishop
-1,900 US marines invade and dispose general Austin.
-Reagan success in preventing spread of communism.
Soviet Union Foriegn Policy
-War in Afghanistan (1979)
-Reagan announces agreement with Soviets over withdrawal of Red Army from Afghanistan (1988)
POLAND –MARTIAL LAW
Soviet Union forced Polish Army to impose Martial Law on Poland (1981) – Reagan could do nothing.
US Puts Cruise Missiles in Western Europe to match Soviet missies in Eastern Europe (1979)
_Europe is the battleground if Soviet –US War were to break out
US-Soviet Nuclear Missile Reduction Discussions
US SOVIET EMBARGO
US Sanctions against Soviet Union for invasion of Afghanistan
SALT II Negotiations over arms control
Thawing out of the cold war between US and Soviet Union
INF Treaty (1987):
Treaty signed between Soviet and US that eliminated the intermediate range missiles
IRAN-IRAQ WAR- Stalemate Policy
-Saddam Hussein (President of Iraq until 2003) feared Iranian Revolution
-Saddam (Iraq) invaded Iran
-US provides Intelligence for Iraq
-US did not want Iraq to gain control of Iran
-US sent Air Missiles to Iran
Persian Gulf War (1990)-Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait because the oil prices went down; Kuwait wanted the money they lent to Iraq
ARGENTINA/ THE FALKLANDS WAR (1982)
US provides covert support (intelligence) to British
-US UN Ambassador supports Brits in heated debates in United Nations
-US supports Contras “Freedom Fighters” -to fight spread of communism
-US sends extended & increased military aid, advisors
Military Dictatorship in Guatemala (Base camp for Contras to fight in Nicaragua)
prohibiting use of US funds for purpose of overthrowing the Govt of Nicaragua or provoking a war between Nicaragua and Honduras.
Iran Contra Affair -Reagan sold weapons to Iran (Ayatollah Khomeini) (surface-to-air missiles) and used the money to funnel secretly to Nicaraguan Contras. Iran would pay triple for weapons.
US & World Economy
Reagan Spends on SDI
Reagan increased defense spending by 40 percent
U.S. Constructive Engagement in South Africa
-Encourage American Investment
-Support corporations that provided jobs for black workers, paid fair wages, and made some room in management for blacks
STUDY GUIDE – Rise to Globalism- Reagan & the Evil Empire (Chap 15)
(Time Period: 1980-1989)
Gabriel Rogoff and Victor Udoji
Important people to Know
• US President during the 80’s
• Hardliner on Communism
• Heavy on arms race
• “The Teflon president”
• Referred to Soviet Union as “Evil Empire” and wanted to roll back communism.
• General Secretary Of Soviet Union
• After realizing that the Soviet Union was spending excessively on the arms race because Reagan was escalating the arms race, Gorbachev – became willing to work with Reagan to reduce global nuclear arsenals and was in favor of banning Soviet nuclear testing.
• Did not like Reagan but he had to respect him
• President of Iraq up until 2003
• At the time, he still had a decent relationship with the United States.
Maintained power during the Iran-Iraq War.
Important Questions to Understand