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history of microsoft

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allan burtt

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of history of microsoft

Double click aHistory of Microsoft
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Microsoft began using its current logo in Windows splash screens with Windows 95.Microsoft is a multinational computer technology corporation. The history of Microsoft began on April 4, 1975, when it was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque.[1] Its current best-selling products are the Microsoft Windows operating system and the Microsoft Office suite of productivity software.

Starting in 1980, Microsoft formed an important partnership with IBM that allowed them to bundle Microsoft's operating system with computers that they sold, paying Microsoft a royalty for every sale. In 1985, IBM requested that Microsoft write a new operating system for their computers called OS/2; Microsoft wrote the operating system, but also continued to sell their own alternative, which proved to be in direct competition with OS/2. Microsoft Windows eventually overshadowed OS/2 in terms of sales. When Microsoft launched several versions of Microsoft Windows in the 1990s, they had captured over 90% market share of the world's personal computers.

The company has now become largely successful. As of 2008, Microsoft has a global annual revenue of US$ 60.42 billion and nearly 90,000 employees in 105 countries. It develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of software products for computing devices.[2][3][4]

Contents [hide]
1 1975–1985: The founding of Microsoft
2 1985–1991: The rise and fall of OS/2
3 1992–1995: Domination of the corporate market
4 1995–1999: Foray into the Web and other ventures
5 2000–2005: Legal issues, XP, and .NET
6 2005–present: Vista and other transitions
7 See also
8 References

[edit] 1975–1985: The founding of Microsoft

Microsoft staff photo from December 7, 1978. From left to right:
Top: Steve Wood, Bob Wallace, Jim Lane.
Middle: Bob O'Rear, Bob Greenberg, Marc McDonald, Gordon Letwin.
Bottom: Bill Gates, Andrea Lewis, Marla Wood, Paul Allen.After reading the January 1, 1975 issue of Popular Electronics that demonstrated the Altair 8800, Bill Gates called the creators of a new microcomputer, MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems), offering to demonstrate an implementation of the BASIC programming language for the system.[5] Gates had neither an interpreter nor an Altair system, yet in the eight weeks before the demo he and Allen developed the interpreter. The interpreter worked at the demo and MITS agreed to distribute Altair BASIC.[6] Gates left Harvard University, moved to Albuquerque, New Mexico where MITS was located, and founded Microsoft there. The name Microsoft (a portmanteau of microcomputer and software), hyphenated in its early incarnations, was first used in a letter from Gates to Allen on November 29, 1975,[6] and on November 26, 1976 the company was registered under that name with the Secretary of State of New Mexico.[5] The company's first international office was founded on November 1, 1978, in Japan, entitled "ASCII Microsoft" (now called "Microsoft Japan"). On Monday, October 22, 1979, a U.S. federal trademark registration was filed for "Microsoft", the first U.S. federal trademark filing by the company.[7] Then, a month later, on November 29, 1979, the term, "Microsoft" was first used by Bill Gates.[5] On January 1, 1979, the company moved from Albuquerque to a new home in Bellevue, Washington.[5] Steve Ballmer joined the company on June 11, 1980, and would later succeed Bill Gates as CEO.[5] The company restructured on June 25, 1981, to become an incorporated business in its home state of Washington (with a further change of its name to "Microsoft, Inc."). As part of the restructuring, Bill Gates became president of the company and Chairman of the Board, and Paul Allen became Executive Vice President.[5]

The first operating system the company publicly released was a variant of Unix in 1980. Acquired from AT&T through a distribution license, Microsoft dubbed it Xenix, and hired Santa Cruz Operation in order to port/adapt the operating system to several platforms.[8][9] This Unix variant would become home to the first version of Microsoft's word processor, Microsoft Word. Originally titled "Multi-Tool Word", Microsoft Word became notable for its concept of "What You See Is What You Get", or WYSIWYG.

The registered trademark for an early Microsoft logo, filed for on August 26 1982, was not canceled by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office until July 10 2004.[10]Word was also the first application with such features as the ability to display bold text. It was first released in the spring of 1983, and free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1983 issue of PC World, making it the first program to be distributed on-disk with a magazine.[11] However, Xenix was never sold to end users directly although it was licensed to many software OEMs for resale. It grew to become the most popular version of Unix, measured by the number of machines running it[12] (note that Unix is a multi-user operating system, allowing simultaneous access to a machine by several users). By the mid-1980s Microsoft had gotten out of the Unix business, except for an interest in SCO.[8]

DOS (Disk Operating System) was the operating system that brought the company its real success. On August 12, 1981, after negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft to provide a version of the CP/M operating system, which was set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer (PC). For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products for less than US$100,000, which IBM renamed to PC-DOS. Microsoft did not have an operating system when they closed the deal with IBM and IBM hadn't done their homework. Due to potential copyright infringement problems with CP/M, IBM marketed both CP/M and PC-DOS for US$240 and US$40, respectively, with PC-DOS eventually becoming the standard because of its lower price.[13][14] Around 1983, in collaboration with numerous companies, Microsoft created a home computer system, MSX, which contained its own version of the DOS operating system, entitled MSX-DOS; this became relatively popular in Japan, Europe and South America.[6][15][16] Later, the market saw a flood of IBM PC clones after Columbia Data Products successfully cloned the IBM BIOS, quickly followed by Eagle Computer and Compaq.[17][18][19][20] The deal with IBM allowed Microsoft to have control of its own QDOS derivative, MS-DOS, and through aggressive marketing of the operating system to manufacturers of IBM-PC clones Microsoft rose from a small player to one of the major software vendors in the home computer industry.[21] With the release of the Microsoft Mouse on May 2, 1983, Microsoft continued to expand its product line in other markets. This expansion included Microsoft Press, a book publishing division, on July 11 the same year, which debuted with two titles: "Exploring the IBM PCjr Home Computer" by Peter Norton, and "The Apple Macintosh Book" by Cary Lu.[5]

[edit] 1985–1991: The rise and fall of OS/2

The sign at a main entrance to the Microsoft corporate campus. The Redmond Microsoft campus today includes more than 8 million square feet (approx. 750,000 m) and 28,000 employees.[22]Ireland became home to Microsoft's first international production facility in 1985, and on November 20 Microsoft released its first retail version of Microsoft Windows (Windows 1.0), originally a graphical extension for its MS-DOS operating system.[5] In August, Microsoft and IBM partnered in the development of a different operating system called OS/2. OS/2 was marketed in connection with a new hardware design proprietary to IBM, the PS/2.[23] On February 16, 1986, Microsoft relocated to Redmond, Washington. Around one month later, on March 13, the company went public with an IPO, raising US$61 million at US$21.00 per share. By the end of the trading day, the price had risen to US$28.00. In 1987, Microsoft eventually released their first version of OS/2 to OEMs.[24]

Meanwhile, Microsoft began introducing its most prominent office products. Microsoft Works, an integrated office program which combined features typically found in a word processor, spreadsheet, database and other office applications, saw its first release as an application for the Apple Macintosh towards the end of 1986.[6] Microsoft Works would later be sold with other Microsoft products including Microsoft Word and Microsoft Bookshelf, a reference collection introduced in 1987 that was the company's first CD-ROM product.[5][25] Later, on August 8, 1989, Microsoft would introduce its most successful office product, Microsoft Office. Unlike the model of Microsoft Works, Microsoft Office was a bundle of separate office productivity applications, such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel and so forth. While Microsoft Word and Microsoft Office were mostly developed internally, Microsoft also continued its trend of rebranding products from other companies, such as Microsoft SQL Server on January 13, 1988, a relational database management system for companies that was based on technology licensed from Sybase.[5]

On May 22, 1990 Microsoft launched Windows 3.0.[6] The new version of Microsoft's operating system boasted such new features as streamlined graphic user interface GUI and improved protected mode capability for the Intel 386 processor; it sold over 100,000 copies in two weeks.[6][26] Windows at the time generated more revenue for Microsoft than OS/2, and the company decided to move more resources from OS/2 to Windows.[27] In an internal memo to Microsoft employees on May 16, 1991, Bill Gates announced that the OS/2 partnership was over, and that Microsoft would henceforth focus its platform efforts on Windows and the Windows NT kernel.[28] Some people, especially developers who had ignored Windows and committed most of their resources to OS/2, were taken by surprise, and accused Microsoft of deception. This changeover from OS/2 was frequently referred to in the industry as "the head-fake".[29][30] In the ensuing years, the popularity of OS/2 declined, and Windows quickly became the favored PC platform. 1991 also marked the founding of Microsoft Research, an organization in Microsoft for researching computer science subjects, and Microsoft Visual Basic, a popular development product for companies and individuals.[5]

[edit] 1992–1995: Domination of the corporate market

The Microsoft sign at the entrance of the German Microsoft campus, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 1, Unterschleißheim, Germany. Microsoft became an international company with headquarters in many countries.During the transition from MS-DOS to Windows, the success of Microsoft's product Microsoft Office allowed the company to gain ground on application-software competitors, such as WordPerfect and Lotus 1-2-3.[6][31] Novell, an owner of WordPerfect for a time, alleged that Microsoft used its inside knowledge of the DOS and Windows kernels and of undocumented Application Programming Interface features to make Office perform better than its competitors.[32] Eventually, Microsoft Office became the dominant business suite, with a market share far exceeding that of its competitors.[33] In March 1992, Microsoft released Windows 3.1 along with its first promotional campaign on TV; the software sold over three million copies in its first two months on the market.[5][6] In October, Windows for Workgroups 3.1 was released with integrated networking capabilities such as peer-to-peer file and printing sharing.[6] In November, Microsoft released the first version of their popular database software Microsoft Access.[6]

The Microsoft sign at the entrance of the Dubai Microsoft campus, Dubai Internet City. Microsoft has developed Arabic versions for most of its products.By 1993, Windows had become the most widely used GUI operating system in the world.[6] Fortune Magazine named Microsoft as the "1993 Most Innovative Company Operating in the U.S."[34] The year also marked the end of a five-year copyright infringement legal case brought by Apple Computer, dubbed Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corp., in which the ruling was in Microsoft's favor, the release of Windows for Workgroups 3.11, a new version of the consumer line of Windows, and Windows NT 3.1, a server-based operating system with a similar user interface to consumer versions of the operating system, but with an entirely different kernel.[6] As part of its strategy to broaden its business, Microsoft released Microsoft Encarta on March 22, 1993, the first encyclopedia designed to run on a computer.[5] Shortly after, the Microsoft Home brand was introduced - encompassing Microsoft's new multimedia applications for Windows 3.x., Microsoft changed its slogan to "Where do you want to go today?" in 1994 as part of an attempt to appeal to nontechnical audiences in a US$100 million advertising campaign.[6]

Microsoft continued to make strategic decisions directed at consumers. The company released Microsoft Bob, a graphical user interface designed for novice computer users, in March 1995. The interface was discontinued in 1996 due to poor sales; Bill Gates later attributed its failure to hardware requirements that were too high for typical computers; Microsoft Bob is widely regarded as Microsoft's most unsuccessful product.[35][36] DreamWorks SKG and Microsoft formed a new company, DreamWorks Interactive (in 2000 acquired by Electronic Arts which named it EA Los Angeles), to produce interactive and multimedia entertainment properties.[5] On August 24, 1995, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows 95, a new version of the company's flagship operating system which featured a completely new user interface, including a novel start button; more than a million copies of Microsoft Windows 95 were sold in the first four days after its release.[6]

Windows 95 was released without a web browser as Microsoft had not yet developed one. The success of the Internet caught them by surprise and they subsequently approached Spyglass to license their browser as Internet Explorer. Spyglass went on to later dispute the terms of the agreement, as Microsoft was to pay a royalty for every copy sold. However, Microsoft sold no copies of Internet Explorer, choosing instead to bundle it for free with the operating system.

Internet Explorer was first included in the Windows 95 Plus! Pack that was released in August 1995.[37] In September, the Chinese government chose Windows to be the operating system of choice in that country, and entered into an agreement with the Company to standardize a Chinese version of the operating system.[6] Microsoft also released the Microsoft Sidewinder 3D Pro joystick in an attempt to further expand its profile in the computer hardware market.[6]

[edit] 1995–1999: Foray into the Web and other ventures
On, May 26, 1995, Bill Gates sent the "Internet Tidal Wave" memorandum to Microsoft executives. The memo described Netscape with their Netscape Navigator as a "new competitor 'born' on the Internet." The memo outlines Microsoft's failure to grasp the Internet's importance, and in it Gates assigns "the Internet this highest level of importance" from then on.[38] Microsoft began to expand its product line into computer networking and the World Wide Web. On August 24, 1995, it launched a major online service, MSN (Microsoft Network), as a direct competitor to AOL. MSN became an umbrella service for Microsoft's online services, using Microsoft Passport (now called Windows Live ID) as a universal login system for all of its web sites.[5][6][39] The company continued to branch out into new markets in 1996, starting with a joint venture with NBC to create a new 24/7 cable news station, MSNBC. The station was launched on July 15, 1996 to compete with similar news outlets such as CNN.[6][40] Microsoft also launched Slate, an online magazine edited by Michael Kinsley, which offered political and social commentary along with the cartoon Doonesbury.[5] In an attempt to extend its reach in the consumer market, the company acquired WebTV, which enabled consumers to access the Web from their televisions.[5] Microsoft entered the personal digital assistant (PDA) market in November with Windows CE 1.0, a new built-from-scratch version of their flagship operating system, specifically designed to run on low-memory, low-performance machines, such as handhelds and other small computers.[41] 1996 saw the release of Windows NT 4.0, which brought the Windows 95 GUI and Windows NT kernel together.[42]

While Microsoft largely failed to participate in the rise of the Internet in the early 1990s, some of the key technologies in which the company had invested to enter the Internet market started to pay off by the mid-90s. One of the most prominent of these was ActiveX, an application programming interface built on the Microsoft Component Object Model (COM); this enabled Microsoft and others to embed controls in many programming languages, including the company's own scripting languages, such as JScript and VBScript. ActiveX included frameworks for documents and server solutions.[6] The company also released the Microsoft SQL Server 6.5, which had built-in support for internet applications.[6] Later in 1997, Microsoft Office 97 as well as Internet Explorer 4.0 were released, marking the beginning of the takeover of the browser market from rival Netscape, and by agreement with Apple Computer, Internet Explorer was bundled with the Apple Macintosh operating system as well as with Windows.[6] Windows CE 2.0, the handheld version of Windows, was released this year, including a host of bug fixes and new features designed to make it more appealing to corporate customers.[41] In October, the Justice Department filed a motion in the federal district court in which they stated that Microsoft had violated an agreement signed in 1994, and asked the court to stop the bundling of Internet Explorer with Windows.[5]

A Windows 98 desktopThe year 1998 was significant in Microsoft's history, with Bill Gates appointing Steve Ballmer as president of Microsoft but remaining as Chair and CEO himself.[5] The company released an update to the consumer version of Windows, Windows 98.[5] Windows 98 came with Internet Explorer 4.0 SP1 (which had Windows Desktop Update bundled), and included new features from Windows 95 OSR 2.x including the FAT32 file system, and new features specifically for Windows 98, such as support for multiple displays.[43] Microsoft launched its Indian headquarters as well, which would eventually become the company's second largest after its U.S. headquarters.[6] Finally, a great deal of controversy took place when a set of internal memos from the company were leaked on the Internet. These documents, colloquially referred to as "The Halloween Documents", were widely reported by the media and go into detail of the threats that free software / open source software poses to Microsoft's own software, previously voiced mainly by analysts and advocates of open source software. The documents also allude to legal and other actions against Linux as well as other open source software.[44][45] While Microsoft acknowledges the documents, it claims that they are merely engineering studies. Despite this, however, some believe that these studies were used in the real strategies of the company.[46].

[edit] 2000–2005: Legal issues, XP, and .NET

Bill Gates gives a presentation at IT-Forum in Copenhagen in 2004.Microsoft, in 2000, released new products for all three lines of the company's flagship operating system, and saw the beginning of the end of one its most prominent legal cases. On February 17, 2000, Microsoft released an update to its business line of software in Windows 2000, which some considered to be a significant improvement over previous versions. It provided an OS stability similar to that of its Unix counterparts due to its usage of the Windows NT kernel, and matching features for several of those found in the home line of the operating system including a DOS emulator that could run many legacy DOS applications.[6] On April 3, 2000, a judgment was handed down in the case of United States v. Microsoft,[47] calling the company an "abusive monopoly"[48] and forcing the company to split into two separate units. Part of this ruling was later overturned by a federal appeals court, and eventually settled with the U.S. Department of Justice in 2001. On June 15, 2000 the company also released a new version of its hand-held operating system, Windows CE 3.0.[41] The main change was the new programming APIs of the software. Previous versions of Windows CE supported only a small subset of the WinAPI, the main development library for Windows, and with Version 3 of Windows CE, the operating system now supported nearly all of the core functionality of the WinAPI. The update to the consumer line, Windows Me (or Windows Millennium Edition), was released on September 14, 2000.[5] It sported several new features such as enhanced multimedia capabilities and consumer-oriented PC maintenance options, but is often regarded as one of the worst versions of Windows due to installation problems and other issues.[36][49]

Windows XP introduced a new interface, along with many other new features. This screenshot shows Windows XP Professional.Microsoft released Windows XP and Office XP in 2001, a version that aimed to encompass the features of both its business and home product lines. The release included an updated version of the Windows 2000 kernel, enhanced DOS emulation capabilities, and many of the home-user features found in previous consumer versions. XP introduced a new graphical user interface, the first such change since Windows 95.[5][50] The operating system was the first to require Microsoft Product Activation, an anti-piracy mechanism that requires users to activate the software with Microsoft within 30 days. Later, Microsoft would enter the multi-billion-dollar game console market dominated by Sony and Nintendo, with the release of the Xbox.[5] As of 2005[update], the console ranked distant second to Sony's PlayStation 2 and slightly ahead of Nintendo's GameCube in market share in the United States. The console sold 24 million units,[51] compared with PlayStation 2 at greater than 100 million units, and the company took a US$4 billion loss on the console.[52][53]

In 2002, Microsoft launched the .NET initiative, along with new versions of some of its development products, such as Microsoft Visual Studio.[5] The initiative has been an entirely new development API for Windows programming, and includes a new programming language, C#. Windows Server 2003 was launched, featuring enhanced administration capabilities, such as new user interfaces to server tools.[6] In 2004, the company released Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005, a version of Windows XP specifically designed for multimedia capabilities, and Windows XP Starter Edition, a version of Windows XP with a smaller feature set designed for entry-level consumers.[5] However, Microsoft would encounter more turmoil in March 2004 when antitrust legal action would be brought against it by the European Union for allegedly abusing its market dominance (see European Union Microsoft antitrust case). Eventually Microsoft was fined €497 million (US$613 million), ordered to divulge certain protocols to competitors, and to produce a new version of its Windows XP platform—called Windows XP Home Edition N—that did not include its Windows Media Player.[54][55] Microsoft was also ordered to produce separate packages of Windows after South Korea also landed a settlement against the company in 2005. It had to pay out US$32 million and produce more than one version of Windows for the country in the same vein as the European Union-one with Windows Media Player and Windows Messenger and one without the two programs.[56]

[edit] 2005–present: Vista and other transitions

Windows Vista is one of Microsoft's latest client operating systems, which features a new visual style, Windows Aero.In guise of competing with other Internet companies such as the search service Google, in 2005 Microsoft announced a new version of its MSN search service.[57] Later, in 2006, the company launched Microsoft adCenter, a service that offers pay per click advertisements, in an effort to further develop their search marketing revenue.[58] Shortly afterward, Microsoft created the CodePlex collaborative development site for hosting open source projects. Activity grew quickly as developers from around the world began to participate, and by early 2007 commercial open source companies, such as Aras Corp,.[59] began to offer enterprise open source software exclusively on the Microsoft platform.

On June 15, 2006 Bill Gates announced his plans for a two year transition period out of a day-to-day role with Microsoft until July 31, 2008. After that date, Gates will continue in his role as the company's chairman, head of the Board of Directors and act as an adviser on key projects. His role as Chief Software Architect will be filled immediately by Ray Ozzie, the Chief Technical Officer of the company as of June 15, 2006.[60] Bill Gates stated "My announcement is not a retirement — it’s a reordering of my priorities."[61]

Formerly codenamed "Longhorn" in the early development stages, Windows Vista was released to consumers on January 30, 2007.[62][63] Microsoft also released a new version of its Office suite, called Microsoft Office 2007, alongside Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 and Visual Studio 2008, the next versions of the company's server operating system and development suite, respectively, have been released to manufacturing, and are scheduled to be released on February 27, 2008.[64]

On December 19, 2007, Microsoft signed a five year, $500 million contract with Viacom that included content sharing and advertisement. The deal allowed Microsoft to license many shows from Viacom owned cable television and film studios for use on Xbox Live and MSN. The deal also made Viacom a preferred publisher partner for casual game development and distribution through MSN and Windows. On the advertisement side of the deal, Microsoft's Atlas ad-serving division became the exclusive provider of previously unsold advertising inventory on Viacom owned web sites. Also, Microsoft also purchased a large amount of advertising on Viacom owned broadcasts and online networks. Finally, Microsoft will also collaborate on promotions and sponsorships for MTV and BET award shows, two Viacom owned cable networks.[65]

In 2008, Microsoft wanted to purchase Yahoo (first completely, later partially) in order to strengthen its position on the search engine market vis-à-vis Google.[66][67] The company rejected the offer, saying that it undervalued the company. In response, Microsoft withdrew its offer.[citation needed]

In 2009, the opening show of the CES was hosted by Steve Ballmer for the first time. In past years, it has been hosted by Bill Gates. In the show, Ballmer announced the first public Beta Test of Windows 7 for partners and developers on January 8, but also for general public on January 10.

On June 26, 2009 Microsoft started taking pre-orders at a discounted price for Windows 7 which was launched on October 22, 2009.

[edit] See also
Microsoft litigation
[edit] References
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Ken Polsson. "Chronology of Events in the History of Microcomputers: 1995+ Confusion". http://www.microprocessor.sscc.ru/comphist/comp1995.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-04.
36.^ a b "Top 10 worst products". CNet. http://www.cnet.com/4520-11136_1-6313439-1.html. Retrieved 2006-07-04.
37.^ "Microsoft - The History of Internet Explorer". http://www.microsoft.com/windows/ie/community/columns/historyofie.mspx. Retrieved 2007-02-06.
38.^ Gates, Bill - The Internet Tidal Wave. Microsoft, May 26, 1995. Made publicly available at United States Department of Justice. United States v. Mhgicrosoft Trial Exhibits
39.^ "MSN Historical Time line". http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/press/2002/nov02/11-08MSN8GlobalTimeLine.mspx. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
40.^ "American Public Media archive". http://marketplace.publicradio.org/shows/1996/07/15_mpp.html. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
41.^ a b c "Windows CE History". http://www.hpcfactor.com/qlink/?linkID=20. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
42.^ "Windows Server 2003: The Road To Gold". Paul Thurrott's SuperSite for Windows. http://www.winsupersite.com/reviews/winserver2k3_gold1.asp. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
43.^ "Introducing MS Windows 98, Second Edition - Chapter 18". http://www.microsoft.com/technet/archive/win98/proddocs/chapt18.mspx?mfr=true. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
44.^ "The Halloween Documents". http://www.opensource.org/halloween/. Retrieved 2006-05-18.
45.^ Bob Trott (1998-11-06). "Microsoft pondering legal challenge to Linux". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9811/06/linux.threat.idg/. Retrieved 2006-05-18.
46.^ "Halloween Document 1". http://www.catb.org/~esr/halloween/halloween1.html. Retrieved 2006-05-18.
47.^ "United States v. Microsoft". U.S. Department of Justice. http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/cases/ms_index.htm. Retrieved 2005-08-05. homepage at the United States Department of Justice
48.^ "U.S. vs. Microsoft findings of fact". http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/cases/f3800/msjudgex.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-18.
49.^ "The 25 Worst Tech Products of All Time". PCWorld. http://www.pcworld.com/reviews/article/0,aid,125772,pg,2,00.asp. Retrieved 2006-07-04.
50.^ "Windows XP Professional Features". http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/pro/evaluation/features.mspx. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
51.^ "24 million sold". http://www.xbox.com/zh-SG/community/news/2006/20060510.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-06.
52.^ "Xbox surpasses five million console milestone in Europe". http://www.gamesindustry.biz/news.php?aid=6520. Retrieved October 18, 2005.
53.^ "Microsoft's midlife crisis". http://www.forbes.com/business/global/2005/1003/036A_4.html. Retrieved October 18, 2005.
54.^ "Microsoft hit by record EU fine". CNN. 2004-03-25. http://www.cnn.com/2004/BUSINESS/03/24/microsoft.eu/. Retrieved 2006-05-19.
55.^ "Text of the European Union ruling against Microsoft" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/comm/competition/antitrust/cases/decisions/37792/en.pdf. Retrieved 2005-08-05. (from the official EU website)
56.^ Dan Nystedt (2005-12-07). "Update: Microsoft fined $32M by South Korea". IDG News Service. http://www.infoworld.com/article/05/12/07/HNmicrosoftfined_1.html. Retrieved 2006-05-19.
57.^ Juan Carlos Perez (2005-02-01). "Microsoft Spotlights Its Search Engine". PCWorld. http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,119512,00.asp. Retrieved 2006-07-04.
58.^ Robert A. Guth; Kevin J. Delaney (2006-05-04). "With adCenter, Microsoft Bids For Web-Search Bonanza". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB114671006737543462-_J28L_xrIrBNHdGD7jifJ9xlb5o_20070504.html. Retrieved 2006-07-04.
59.^ Neil McAllister (2007-01-15). "Soft Sell for Open Source Apps". InfoWorld. http://www.infoworld.com/article/07/01/15/03OPopenent_1.html. Retrieved 2007-01-15.
60.^ "Microsoft Announces Plans for July 2008 Transition for Bill Gates". http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/press/2006/jun06/06-15CorpNewsPR.mspx. Retrieved 2006-06-16.
61.^ Richard Waters (2006-06-15). "Bill Gates calls time on career at Microsoft". Financial Times. http://news.ft.com/cms/s/fb5a5b88-fcab-11da-9599-0000779e2340.html. Retrieved 2006-06-17.
62.^ "It's Official: Windows Vista RC1 Is Complete". http://blogs.technet.com/windowsvista/archive/2006/09/01/453491.aspx. Retrieved 2006-09-01.
63.^ "Microsoft Updates Windows Vista Road Map". http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/press/2006/mar06/03-21WindowsVistaDeliveryPR.mspx. Retrieved 2006-03-21.
64.^ Nate Mook. "New Windows Server, Visual Studio, SQL Server to Launch in February". BetaNews. http://www.betanews.com/article/New_Windows_Server_Visual_Studio_SQL_Server_to_Launch_in_February/1184080223. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
65.^ Viacom, Microsoft ink content, ad deal
66.^ BBC NEWS | Business | Yahoo-Google agree online ad deal
67.^ BBC NEWS | Business | Microsoft mulls fresh Yahoo deal
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This article describes the history of Microsoft Office.

Contents [hide]
1 Windows versions
1.1 Timeline
1.2 Editions
1.2.1 Office 4.x
1.2.2 Office 95
1.2.3 Office 97
1.2.4 Office 2000
1.2.5 Office XP
1.2.6 Office 2003
1.2.7 Office 2007
2 Mac versions
3 References

[edit] Windows versions
[edit] Timeline
Release date Title/version Contents Notes
August 30, 1992 Office 3.0 CD-ROM version: Word 2.0c, Excel 4.0a, PowerPoint 3.0, Mail Repackaged as Office 92
January 17, 1994 Office 4.0 Word 6.0, Excel 4.0, PowerPoint 3.0.
June 2, 1994 Office 4.3 Word 6.0, Excel 5.0, PowerPoint 4.0, Mail 3.2 and in the Pro version, Access 2.0. This is the last 16-bit version. This is also the last version to support Windows 3.x, Windows NT 3.1 and Windows NT 3.5 (Windows NT 3.51 was supported up to and including Office 97).
July 3, 1994 Office for NT 4.2 Word 6.0 and Excel 5.0 (both 32-bit, i386, MIPS, PowerPC, and Alpha), PowerPoint 4.0 (16-bit), "Microsoft Office Manager".
August 30, 1995 Office 95 (7.0) Word 7 for Windows 95, etc. Coincided with the Windows 95 operating system release. Works only on Windows 95, NT 3.51 or higher. This is the first Office version to have the same version number (7.0, inherited from Word 6.0) for all major component products (Word, Excel and so on).
December 30, 1996 Office 97 (8.0) Word 97, etc. Was published on CD-ROM as well as on a set of 45 3½-inch floppy disks), became Y2K safe with Service Release 2. Last version to support Windows NT 3.51 on i386 and Alpha.
June 20, 1998 Office 97 Powered by Word 98 (8.5) The only way to get Word 98. Was released only in Japanese and Korean editions. First version to contain Outlook 98 in all editions and Publisher 98 in the Small Business Edition. And also the first version of Office 97 to support Windows 98.
January 27, 1999 Office 2000 (9.0) Word 2000, etc. Last version to support Windows 95. Office 2000 is also the last version which does not include Product Activation and is not covered by Office Genuine Advantage, although on individual installs, the Office Update website still required the presence of original install media for updates to install.
May 31, 2001 Office XP (10.0) Word 2002, etc. Last version to support Windows 98/Me/NT 4.0. Improved support for working in restricted accounts under Windows 2000/XP.
November 17, 2003 Office 2003 (11.0) Word 2003, etc. First version to introduce Windows XP style icons. Last version to support Windows 2000.
January 30, 2007 Office 2007 (12.0) Word 2007, etc. Broadly released alongside Windows Vista.
2010[1] Office 2010 (14.0) There will be no Microsoft Office 13 due to superstition. This is the first version to ship in 32- and 64-bits.[2]

[edit] Editions
[edit] Office 4.x
Standard Professional
Word Word
Excel Excel
PowerPoint PowerPoint
Mail Mail

[edit] Office 95
Standard Professional
Word 95 (7.0) Word 95 (7.0)
Excel 95 (7.0) Excel 95 (7.0)
PowerPoint 95 (7.0) PowerPoint 95 (7.0)
Schedule+ 95 (7.0) Schedule+ 95 (7.0)
Access 95 (7.0)

[edit] Office 97
Standard Professional Small Business Developer
Word 97 (8.0) Word 97 (8.0) Word 97 (8.0) Word 97 (8.0)
Excel 97 (8.0) Excel 97 (8.0) Excel 97 (8.0) Excel 97 (8.0)
Outlook 97 (8.0) Outlook 97 (8.0) Outlook 98 (8.5) Outlook 9? (?.?)
PowerPoint 97 (8.0) PowerPoint 97 (8.0) - PowerPoint 97 (8.0)
- Access 97 (8.0) - Access 97 (8.0)
Photo Editor 3.0 Photo Editor 3.0 Photo Editor 3.0 ?
- - Publisher 98 ?
- - Small Business Financial Manager 98 (3.0) ?
- - - Developer Tools and SDK

[edit] Office 2000
Standard Small Business * Professional Premium Developer
Word Word Word Word Word
Excel Excel Excel Excel Excel
Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook
PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint
Publisher Publisher Publisher Publisher
Access Access Access
FrontPage FrontPage
PhotoDraw PhotoDraw
Small Business Tools Developer Tools and SDK

[edit] Office XP
Standard Professional Professional with FrontPage * Professional Special Edition Developer
Word Word Word Word Word
Excel Excel Excel Excel Excel
Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook
PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint
Access Access Access Access
FrontPage FrontPage FrontPage
Publisher Developer Tools and SDK
SharePoint Team Services

[edit] Office 2003
Basic* Student and Teacher Edition Standard Small Business Professional Edition Enterprise Edition**
Word Word Word Word Word Word
Excel Excel Excel Excel Excel Excel
Outlook Outlook Outlook Outlook with Business Contact Manager Outlook with Business Contact Manager Outlook with Business Contact Manager
PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint
Publisher Publisher Publisher
Access Access
InfoPath InfoPath

OneNote 2003 was not included in any of the Office 2003 editions. FrontPage 2003, Visio 2003 and Project 2003 were also sold separately.

[edit] Office 2007
Home Basic* Home and Student Standard Small Business Professional Professional Plus Enterprise Ultimate
Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word
Excel Excel Excel Excel Excel Excel Excel Excel
PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint PowerPoint
Outlook Outlook Outlook + Business Contact Manager Outlook + Business Contact Manager Outlook Outlook Outlook + Business Contact Manager
Accounting Express Accounting Express Accounting Express
Publisher Publisher Publisher Publisher Publisher
Access Access Access Access
InfoPath InfoPath InfoPath
Groove Groove
OneNote OneNote OneNote
Communicator Communicator Communicator
Enterprise Content Manager Enterprise Content Manager Enterprise Content Manager
Electronic Forms Electronic Forms Electronic Forms
Information Rights Management and Policy Capabilities Information Rights Management and Policy Capabilities Information Rights Management and Policy Capabilities

* Available only in OEM installs (typically in new computers)
** Indicates availability only through volume licensing.

[edit] Mac versions

Office for Mac folderPackage Name Applications and comments Release Date
Office 1 Word 3, etc. 1990
Office 2 Word 4, etc. 1992
Office 3 Word 5, Excel 4, PowerPoint 3, etc. 1993
Office 4.2 Word 6, Excel 5, PowerPoint 4, etc. 1994
Office 4.2.1 Word 6, Excel 5, PowerPoint 4, etc. (first release designed for the PPC, final release for 68K) 1994
Office 98 (8.0) Word/Excel/PowerPoint 98 March 15, 1998
Office 2001 (9.0) Word/Excel/PowerPoint and Entourage 2001 (final release for Mac OS 9) October 11, 2000
Office (10.0/X) Word/Excel/PowerPoint/Entourage X (first release for Mac OS X, latest update 10.1.9) November 19, 2001
Office 2004 (11.0) Word/Excel/PowerPoint/Entourage 2004 (latest update 11.5.5) February 12, 2004
Office 2008 (12.0) Word/Excel/PowerPoint/Entourage 2008 (the first release that runs natively on both PPC and Intel without the use of the Rosetta emulation layer, latest update 12.1.9) January 15, 2008

[edit] References
1.^ Hoover, J. Nicholas (2009-03-02). "Microsoft Opens Office 14 Kimono, Slightly". InformationWeek. http://www.informationweek.com/news/software/enterpriseapps/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=215600338. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
2.^ Microsoft to skip "unlucky" Office 13
[hide]v • d • eMicrosoft Office

Office suites Windows 95 · 97 · 2000 · XP · 2003 · 2007 · 2010

Mac OS/Mac OS X 98 · 2001 · X · 2004 · 2008 · 2011 (upcoming)

Applications Desktop Access · Communicator · Entourage · Excel · Excel Viewer · Groove (Microsoft SharePoint Workspace) · InfoPath · InterConnect · OneNote · Outlook (Outlook Connector · Add-ins) · PowerPoint · PowerPoint Viewer · Project · Publisher · SharePoint Designer · Snapshot Viewer for Access · Visio · Word · Word Viewer

Server Communications Server · Forms Server · Groove Server · PerformancePoint Server · Project Server (Project Portfolio Server) · Office SharePoint Server (Excel Services · InfoPath Forms Services)

Online Live Meeting · Office Live · Office Online · Office Web Apps · Outlook Web Access

Mobile Office Mobile

Office tools Clip Organizer · Graph · Equation Editor · Picture Manager · WordArt

Discontinued Accounting · Binder · Data Analyzer · Document Imaging · Document Scanning · FrontPage · Liquid Motion · Mail · Office Assistants · PhotoDraw · Photo Editor · Schedule+ · Vizact · Web Components

Related Microsoft Works · MapPoint · Microsoft SharePoint · Windows SharePoint Server

Technologies Information Bridge Framework · Object Linking and Embedding · Office Open XML · Office XML formats · Smart tags · Visual Basic for Applications · Clippy

History of Microsoft Office

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Microsoft_Office"
Categories: Microsoft Office
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