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Alyson Hardick: Ancient Rome Prezi

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Alyson Hardick

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of Alyson Hardick: Ancient Rome Prezi

FROM KINGDOM TO REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE--ECONOMY AND SOCIETY IN THE ROMAN MEDITERRANEAN AND THE COSMOPOLITAN MEDITERRANEAN ANCIENT ROME The kingdom of Rome was between 700 and 600 B.C. and that was when the kings ruled. After the last Etruscan king was kicked out of office, the Romans decided it was time for separation of power and a system of checks and balances. The growth of Rome allowed Rome to have a better economy and more authority than in their past, but issues still occurred. There were problems dealing with money and governing defeated nations. FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE Throughout the centuries where Rome had much power, the economy changed for areas all over the Mediterranean. Trade continued to nations that Rome had not yet conquered by using the Silk Road, and cities had enormous changes due to the good economy. The Mediterranean was a very important area because of the trade, economy, religions, and traditions. Many people traveled through Rome and brought their religions with them. Christianity spread very quickly within Rome in about 300 years and it was soon the most popular religion in Rome. BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON ANCIENT ROME FROM KINGDOM TO REPUBLIC ECONOMY AND SOCIETY IN THE ROMAN MEDITERRANEAN THE COSMOPOLITAN MEDITERRANEAN Rome was founded by a man named Romulus in 753 B.C. and he named himself the first king. It is still a wonder how Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, survived, since their uncle planned to kill them when they were very young. Many people that lived in Rome in its beginning were people that immigrated from neighboring lands. The early Romans practiced agriculture and founded tribal groups. There were two main rulers in the republic, called consuls, and they made decisions together, instead of one king making all the choices in the kingdom. The consuls could only have one term, which was a year, every ten years in the republic. However, the Roman kingdom allowed kings to have power for their entire life. The Roman republic had three branches that had power: the Consuls, the Senate, and the Assembly. The Consuls acted as judges, could choose a dictator in emergencies, and chose the Senators. The Senators held office for their entire life, had control over how the money was spent, and influenced the decisions of the consuls and the army. The Assembly voted on laws, elected the consuls and the government officials, and could announce war or make peace agreements. Etruscan: a group who ruled much of Italy between 800 and 500 B.C. Ancient Rome was so successful because of its huge army and its geographic location, which made it easy to move to different places at any given time. The Roman army made smarter decisions during the republic because many people could give their input on what should be done in any situation. The senate had the most power out of all three groups because they made important decisions about money and the army. They could also have long term effects on Rome because they held office for life. Rome's Republic is Established The plebeians were very upset by not having much power, so the patricians gave them tribunes, or the power to elect 10 people that could voice their concerns in political matters. plebeians: middle class Romans patricians: wealthy Romans During the republic, the Punic Wars allowed Rome to be "the nation to fear" in the Mediterranean area by winning battles against Carthage, Antigonid, and Seleucid. Ancient Roman Building Entrance The republic had complications giving out pieces of conquered land because the rich usually got it over the middle class. The wealthy people that possessed this land frequently arranged large communities called latifundia. The common people that owned this land were not allowed to join the latifundia, which made expenses more. Ultimately, the middle class were forced to sell their land to the rich when they could no longer afford everything. latifundia: "a great estate," large organized pieces of land owned by the rich Between 2000 and 1000 B.C., separation between the social classes increased, which eventually lead to a civil war. Before this happened, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchi tried to make laws that did not allow people to own too much conquered land. The rich did not like this because it would mean losing their land, so the two brothers were killed. This proved to Roman leaders that the republic was not working out, but before changes were made, the civil war began. The two generals were Gaius Marius, working with the common people, and Lucius Cornelius Sulla, working with the rich. This civil war lasted about 5 years, and thousands of people were killed. The Roman empire was established by a man named Julius Caesar, who was a well-liked man because of his military success in conquering Gaul. He captured Rome in 49 B.C. Three years later, Julius named himself the dictator of Rome for the rest of his life, but was killed two years after. Julius Caesar Soon after Julius Caesar's death, Augustus had power in Rome for 45 years. Augustus' "style of ruling" was used in Rome for hundreds of years to follow his ruling. The empire was still expanding as it did in the republic and kingdom and many neighboring lands were still being conquered by the Roman army. Augustus Silk Road: a road system all throughout Rome that was built to move Rome's army around quickly; frequently used for trade especially with China for their silk; the road also was responsible for Christianity moving into Rome The Silk Road Rome produced grain in exchange for olives, fruits, nuts, wool, cooper, olive oil, wines, horses, bronze, pottery, and glassware. Many people came to visit or live in Rome because it was much different from the countryside. There were circuses, stadiums, different foods, an underground waste system, and even pools. The people that lived in rural areas saw this life much different from their own, and many people wanted to be part of it. This increased Rome's population and made Rome a very diverse place to live. Roman Pottery Many Roman families had their household set up as "pater familias" is in charge. He arranged marriages for all his kids, decided their job, and basically had complete control over the rest of the family. About 33% of all Romans were in slavery around 2000 C.E. and there was a growing gap between the rich and the poor. pater familias: "father of the family"; usually the oldest male member of the family LIFE IN ANCIENT ROME Before Christianity was practiced in Rome, many Romans believed in gods and goddesses such as Jupiter, Mars, Ceres, Janus, and Vesta. Some Romans also began believing in gods that Etruscans believed in. A few examples are Juno, the moon goddess, and Minerva, the goddess of wisdom. Jupiter: a Roman god When Christianity and Judaism became popular, there was some tension between the polytheistic and monotheistic people. Many Jewish people would not praise the emperor, since they only believed in one God, and the Romans went to war with the Jews and defeated them in the Jewish War between 66 and 70 C.E. polytheistic: the belief in more than one god monotheistic: the belief in only one God Jesus was crucified, but that only brought more people to become Christian. The first bishop was Paul, an apostle of Jesus. Christians believed that Jesus really died and then came back to life. The bishops helped spread Jesus' message of heaven, His miracles, and kindness. bishop: a priest that had authority over other priests Paul: an apostle of Jesus and the first bishop of the Christian community apostle: one of the first twelve people called by Jesus to help spread His message CONCLUSIONS ON ANCIENT ROME The entire Mediterranean area changed because of the development of Rome. Rome helped nearby nations economy by trading with them, but also conquered quite a few neighboring lands. Rome helped religion spread all over the Mediterranean, and without Rome, Christianity probably would not be as common as it is today. Rome's way of life and culture also spread throughout the Mediterranean and changed nearby countries. checks and balances: limits on certain branches of government so that no person has too much power Alyson Hardick
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