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Persuasion Unit

Teaching persuasion through political cartoons, advertisements, persuasive letters, and editorials
by

Kimberly Reikow

on 3 March 2014

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Transcript of Persuasion Unit

Political
Cartoons

Persuasion Unit
The increase in newspaper and magazine popularity in the 1800's provided a great environment for the rise and use of political cartoons.
One reason political cartoons became so popular, was because they were easy to understand and allowed its viewers to comprehend the powerful ideas (even for those who didn't know how to read)
Most have little or no words in them but can still convey a strong meaning
Everything that is drawn in a cartoon has a purpose
Symbols, caricature, drawings, and exaggerations drawn by the cartoonist, point out the themes and problems of that historical era.
Political cartoons play an important
part in telling the history of a era.
Political Cartoons use the following techniques:
humor-
Anything that is funny, witty, or amusing,
or that has the capacity to make people laugh.
exaggeration
- sometimes cartoonists overdo,
or exaggerate, the physical characteristics of
people or things in order to make a point.
symbolism
- when an object represents a word, expression, or idea
labeling
- cartoonists often label objects or people
to make it clear exactly what they stand for.
analogy
- similarity between like features of two things
irony
- the expression of one's meaning by using language
that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous
or emphatic effect.
How does this cartoon show:
humor
symbolism
labeling
analogy
irony
Time to make your own
political cartoon!
Take a few minutes and brainstorm the main problem in your
historical fiction novels you just read.
Draw a cartoon depicting the main problem using the 6 parts of political cartoons.
**Be sure to use all 6 and explain how each is used in your drawing
**A bulleted list is fine to do for this part, however, if you would like to write your explanation in paragraph form, that is fine also
Political Cartoons
Short, Declarative Sentences Persuade
Persuasive writing lends itself to short direct sentences. Of course, all your sentences do not need to be short (we don't need to go overboard). But a short sentence at the start of a paragraph gives readers a bit of a break.
Here's a secret: Short declarative sentences work at the end of a paragraph, too. They can be a great transition to the next paragraph.
A declarative sentence simply states a fact or argument, without requiring either an answer or action from the reader.
Ernest Hemingway's famous short story:
For sale: baby shoes, never used.
Is this a good example of a short, declarative sentence?
How do these short declarative sentences persuade?
What is the short declarative sentence in this cartoon?

What is the irony of this cartoon?

What is this cartoon persuading its reader to think?

Who is the audience of this political cartoon?
Persuasion in Television Advertisements
and Public Service Announcements

Sometimes we get so caught up in all the wonderful things we (or our products or services) can do, that we lose sight of what we really need to be telling our audience:
what's in it for them
?
The following advice is the first and most important rule of communications:
Our message must always be crafted to appeal to our audience's self-interest.
What that means is that we must talk about
what is good for our customers
, not about why we are the greatest or what our organization needs.
It means talking about
benefits
, not features. It means showing
how our product fulfills a need
-- the deeper and more urgent the need, the better.
Here are some examples:
All it takes to communicate in the interests of our audience is to
look at what we're offering from their perspective
. It's
a change in thinking
that will pay off in your bottom line.
Wrong:
Our computers have 14-gigabyte snufflewhupters.
Right:
With 14-gigabyte snufflewhupters, you'll finish your work in time to eat dinner with your family.
Wrong:
Processing your claim is a detailed process that takes several weeks, so we need for you to send us your claim form as soon as possible.
Right:
We know that you're eager to get your claim check, so we've tried to make the process as fast and easy as possible. To help speed your claim along, all you have to do is fill out this simple form and send it back to us in the stamped envelope we've provided. You can expect to receive your claim check in four weeks.
Wrong:
Our carrots are loaded with vitamins.
Right:
You'll be able to see in the dark with Better Bunny carrots.
As you watch the following advertisements, please
answer the following questions for each:
1.
What is the audience of this advertisement?
2.
What is the advertisement trying to persuade its viewer to think?
3.
What benefits is the advertiser offering?
4.
Does the advertisement talk about its opponents?
5.
Which techniques that we have talked about so far, does the advertisement use?
Take 2 minutes to stop and jot your answers to the questions:
1.
What is the audience of this advertisement?
2.
What is the advertisement trying to persuade its viewer to think?
3.
What benefits is the advertiser offering?
4.
Does the advertisement talk about its opponents?
5.
Does the advertisement use any of the techniques we talked about?
Take 2 minutes to stop and jot your answers to the questions:
1.
What is the audience of this advertisement?
2.
What is the advertisement trying to persuade its viewer to think?
3.
What benefits is the advertiser offering?
4.
Does the advertisement talk about its opponents?
5.
Does the advertisement use any of the techniques we talked about?
1.
What is the audience of this advertisement?
2.
What is the advertisement trying to persuade its viewer to think?
3.
What benefits is the advertiser offering?
4.
Does the advertisement talk about its opponents?
5.
Does the advertisement use any of the techniques we talked about?
Take 2 minutes to stop and jot your answers to the questions:
Persuasion Unit
Magazine and Newspaper
Advertisements

AVANTE GARDE
The suggestion that using this product puts the user ahead of the times e.g. a toy manufacturer encourages kids to be the first on their block to have a new toy.
FACTS AND FIGURES
Statistics and objective factual information is used to prove the superiority of the product e.g. a car manufacturer quotes the amount of time it takes their car to get from 0 to 100 k.p.h.

MAGIC INGREDIENTS
The suggestion that some almost miraculous discovery makes the product exceptionally effective e.g. a pharmaceutical manufacturer describes a special coating that makes their pain reliever less irritating to the stomach than a competitor`s.
SNOB APPEAL
The suggestion that the use of the product makes the customer part of an elite group with a luxurious and glamorous life style e.g. a coffee manufacturer shows people dressed in formal gowns and tuxedos drinking their brand at an art gallery.
BRIBERY
Bribery seems to give a desirable extra something. We humans tend to be greedy. e.g. Buy a burger; get free fries.
TESTIMONIAL
A famous personality is used to endorse the product e.g. a famous basketball player (Michael Jordan) recommends a particular brand of skates.
BANDWAGON
Bandwagon is a form of propaganda that exploits the desire of most people to join the crowd or be on the winning side, and avoid winding up the losing side. Few of us would want to wear nerdy cloths, smell differently from everyone else, or be unpopular.

WIT AND HUMOR
Customers are attracted to products that divert the audience by giving viewers a reason to laugh or to be entertained by clever use of visuals or language.
GLITTERING GENERALITIES
The glittering generalities technique uses appealing words and images to sell the product. The message this commercial gives, through indirectly, is that if you buy the item, you will be using a wonderful product, and it will change your life. This cosmetic will make you look younger, this car will give you status, this magazine will make you a leader-all these commercials are using Glittering Generalities to enhance product appeal.
CARD STACKING
Card-Stacking means stacking the cards in favor of the product; advertisers stress is positive qualities of the product and ignore negative qualities. For example, if a brand of snack food is loaded with sugar (and calories), the commercial may boast that the product is low in fat, which implies that it is also low in calories. Card-Stacking is a propaganda technique that gives us only part of the picture.
Don't worry about copying down every word from these definitions. Write down what will help you remember each advertising technique.
Advertisement Techniques
With the worksheet you have just been handed please be sure to:
identify which advertisement techniques they have used
identify the audience the advertisement is aiming toward
identify what is the advertisement trying to persuade its reader to think
identify whether the advertisement mentions its opponents
Persuasive Speeches
What is persuasive speech?
when the goal of your speech is to influence your audience to believe as you do
Wrong:
Our computers have 14-gigabyte snufflewhupters.
Right:
With 14-gigabyte snufflewhupters, you'll finish your work in time to eat dinner with your family.
Wrong:
Processing your claim is a detailed process that takes several weeks, so we need for you to send us your claim form as soon as possible.
Right:
We know that you're eager to get your claim check, so we've tried to make the process as fast and easy as possible. To help speed your claim along, all you have to do is fill out this simple form and send it back to us in the stamped envelope we've provided. You can expect to receive your claim check in four weeks.
Wrong:
Our carrots are loaded with vitamins.
Right:
You'll be able to see in the dark with Better Bunny carrots.
Think back to speeches you have heard either in religious services, at assemblies, while watching presidents on tv, etc.
Using a "T-Chart," take 3 minutes and write down at least 3 things that made these speeches good and at least 3 things that made these speeches bad.
Good Speech Characteristics
Bad Speech Characteristics
What does a skilled persuasive speaker understand?
who their audience is
how they are going to use logic (reasoning and evidence for their beliefs) and emotion to capture their audience
they must always be ready to make adjustments to get the audience on their side
they must have personal appeal so that the audience believes they are honest and qualified to be speaking about the subject at hand
they must have good body language, pronunciation, speaking speed, voice volume, and use stress on important words
Now it is your turn to grade some speeches! Use the rubric provided to grade each speech.
President Barack Obama's speech:
Election night, November 4, 2008
How You Can and Should Be a Hero
Coach Herman Boone's speech
from the movie, Remember the Titans
Persuasive Letters
Turn & Talk:
With the person next to you, take a few minutes and talk about a time you have tried to persuade someone to do something or to believe the same way you do. Did you speak truthfully or did you exaggerate something? Do you think it's easier to persuade someone by writing a letter or speaking to them in person?
As you listen to the story, I Wanna Iguana, jot down some of the ways the main character tries to persuade his mom to buy him an iguana.

Does he use any elements of persuasion we have learned about so far this unit?
Now it's your turn to write a letter:
Draft a letter to someone persuading them of something. Perhaps you want a longer lunch period? Or to get a new pet?
What you need:
3 paragraphs (at least 5 sentences in each)
clearly state the thing you are persuading your reader of
write about the cons of how this will affect you, the reader, or the situation AND your solutions to these
tell the reader how you will benefit from this proposal
The world is your oyster, so go for it!
Editorials
Questions we must ask ourselves as we read editorials:
What is the issue?
What is the author's position?
What are the arguments that support this position?
How does the author address the opposing side (counter arguments/people who would disagree with the writer's opinion)?
How does the editorial change how I feel?
Before we start writing our own editorials, we need to get a sense of what they are and why they are important to learn about.
An
editorial
is an article in a newspaper or other periodical presenting the opinion of the publisher, editor, or editors.
Editorials are important to learn about because they allow the writer to persuade others to believe the same as they do on an issue or topic.
Editorials also allow for people to examine both the pros and the cons of an issue and decide whether or not they agree with the position the editorial writer has taken.
Newspapers
Magazines
Online forums
Blogs
Reviews of music, film, plays
After you are finished reading the article, answer these questions in complete sentences on a loose sheet of paper.
What is the issue of this editorial?
What made it persuasive?
What is the author's position?
What are the arguments that support this position?
How does the editorial change how I feel?
Were you persuaded by the article?
Did the writer use any persuasion tactics we have learned about so far?
If so, which ones and how did they use them?
Exit Ticket:
Taking A Stand
The importance of having an opinion
Class Activity: Vote With Your Feet
Turn to your elbow partner, and take the next 5 minutes to write down and talk about why it is important to have an opinion.
What happens if you don't have an opinion?
Personal Response
Talk with your elbow partner about your response/ reaction to how your thoughts and opinions "moved your feet".
Did you find yourself moving a lot? A little? Not at all?
Why do you think that happened?
Do you consider yourself to be an opinionated person?
Did you feel worried about standing in one spot and not having other students standing with you?
Why do you think it is important to have an opinion while writing an editorial?
Any other thoughts you had while doing the activity.
"Recognize that knowing a lot of stuff won't do you much good unless you can do something with what you know by turning it into an argument."
-Gerald Graff
Fact vs. Opinion
Fact:
Opinion:
Importance of facts and opinions in editorials?
You and your group are now detectives and must come up with a diagnosis for the murder. Use the questions provided to help you come to your conclusion.
Your diagnosis must be written as if you and your group members are the detectives.
What did you notice about the role of facts and opinions in the murder mystery? Was it difficult to keep them seperate? Is it necessary to keep them seperate when you are trying to persuade others to think like you?
Now it is your turn to write your own short declarative sentences.
With the political cartoons you drew yesterday, come up with sentence that you feel explains your cartoon.
Use the handout as a guide if you get stuck.
In your writer's notebooks,
jot down the short declarative sentences you see in this short clip
What tecnhiques are used in this political cartoon?
Kinds of Sentences:
Declarative Sentence:
Makes a statement. It ends with a period.
Example:
Rice is a popular food.
Interrogative Sentence:
Asks a question. It ends with a question mark.
Example:
Where did you find the card?
Exclamatory Sentence:
Shows strong feeling. It ends with an exclamation point.
Example:
The monster is attacking!
Imperative Sentence:
Addresses someone directly. It can end with either a period or an exclamation point. The subject of an imperative sentence (which is you) is understood.
Examples:
Cheryl, [you] try the other door; [You] Leave me alone!
http://www.pennykittle.net/index.php?page=texting-and-driving-student-movie
Take 2 minutes to stop and jot your answers to the questions:
1.
What is the audience of this advertisement?
2.
What is the advertisement trying to persuade its viewer to think?
3.
What benefits is the advertiser offering?
4.
Does the advertisement talk about its opponents?
5.
Does the advertisement use any of the techniques we talked about?
Friendly Letter format:
Dear _________,
Paragraph 1
Paragraph 2
Paragraph 3
Closer (Sincerely, Love, Yours, etc.)
With someone around you and without getting out of your seat, talk about and jot down
2 examples of how the main character used persuasion in his letters
2 examples of how he acknowledged possible counter arguments from his mom and what his solutions to these possible problems were .
Where do we see editorials?
Kids should be able to have TVs in their bedrooms.
Beauty is only skin deep.
Wearing a helmet when riding a bike should be mandatory.
The Pledge of Allegiance should be recided in school each day.
Because many kids need more sleep, school should start two hours later than it does now.
Chewing gum should be banned from schools.
Scientists should be allowed to use animals to test new medicines.
Kids should be able to spend their allowance any way they want to.
Kids younger than 18 should be able to make their own decisions about whether to get a body piercing.
Kids should be allowed to take up any hobby they want to.
Students that play musical instruments should not be required to take private lessons.
Cafeterias should offer fast food lunches instead of cafeteria food.
Skateboards, longboards, and rollerblades should be allowed on sidewalks.
Television is better than books.
Girls have it better than boys.
Cats make better pets than dogs.
Animals should not be kept in cages.
Computers should replace teachers.
The Olympics are a waste of money.
Strong Thesis Statements
A thesis statement is like a controller for the Xbox 360® or PlayStation 3®. When you are playing a video game, what would happen if the controller was disconnected from the game console?
Your character would probably die and you would lose the game! Well, it’s the same thing with your thesis statement. If you don’t put a thesis statement in your essay, your essay will die, and you will lose your audience. The key to winning in the game of writing is having a well-built thesis statement.
Your thesis statement is "the boss" of your paper, determining how your paper is going to turn out.
Think of your thesis statement as Mr. Krabs, from Spongebob. Mr. Krabs is the boss of the Krusty Krab. He decides what goes on in his restaurant and how things are run. If something goes wrong in the Krusty Krab, Mr. Krabs needs to re-think his procedures in the restaurant and fix the problem by re-stating his rules (while writing your paper, this would happen if you started writing about things that were off topic from the main point of your paper).
A topic sentence is like a supervisor, who takes orders from "the boss." In this case, Spongebob is the topic sentence or the supervisor because he takes orders from Mr. Krabs. The supervisor needs to listen to what the boss says so that he/she can make sure things run smoothly. If not, the whole restaurant (paper) could burst into flames!
A restaurant will not run very smoothly with just one supervisor, so we need to make sure that there are a couple more. Squidward and Patrick seem perfect for the job.
So, now we have a thesis:
"The Boss"
And three topic statements to support our thesis:
"The Supervisors"
Now that we have our topic statements and our thesis, we need to organize how the paper is going to flow. If we think about the Krusty Krab, Spongebob, Squidward, and Patrick can't all be fry cooks because other parts of the restaurant need to be looked after. Each supervisor has their own job to help the restaurant flow well.
In a paper, each of the topic statements need to be different so that you can support all elements of the thesis. Even though these statements will address different things, they are all following the orders of the thesis (boss).
Topic sentence #1 is in charge of Body Paragraph One. Topic Sentence #2 is in charge of Body Paragraph Two. Topic Sentence #3 is in charge of Body Paragraph Three.
Take the next few minutes to identify "the boss" and "the supervisors" of your editorial. Write them out into complete sentences (I expect you to have 3 topic statements and 1 thesis).
-Do they all work well with "the boss" to make your paper run smoothly?
-If not, how can you change the wording you used to make it flow better?
What it looks like when the paper is not flowing well...
In order for the supervisors to do their jobs correctly and efficiently, they must have support/tools to make the job easier. For the purpose of our papers, we will call this the evidence.
So, what kind of tools do our supervisors use?
Spongebob?
Squidward?
Patrick?
Speakers and writers often use an anecdote as an example of an important point. Anecdotes are very, very short stories told to make a point. The writers and speakers hope that associating their point with a memorable story, will make the point memorable, too.
Anecdotes are usually true stories about real people and can be told in the first person by the person to whom they happened.
They can also be told in the third person by someone who saw or read about the incident.

Examples of Anecdotes
“Turbulence,” David SedarisFrom
The New Yorker
(June 2005)
“On the flight to Raleigh, I sneezed, and the cough drop I’d been sucking on shot from my mouth, ricocheted off my folded tray table, and landed, as I remember it, in the lap of the woman beside me, who was asleep and had her arms folded across her chest. I’m surprised that the force didn’t wake her—that’s how hard it hit—but all she did was flutter her eyelids and let out a tiny sigh, the kind you might hear from a baby.”
Turkey problems

A lady was picking through the frozen turkeys at the grocery store, but couldn't find one big enough for her family.
She asked a stock boy, "Do these turkeys get any bigger?"
The stock boy replied, "No, ma'am, they are dead."
Anecdotes as Evidence
Full transcript