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Error Correction Techniques for the Classroom.
Transcript of Error Correction Techniques for the Classroom.
Error Correction Strategies for the Classroom
Mauricio Navarro A.
Types of errors
Lexical errors - I remembered a lot of thinks.
Grammar errors - We speaked.
Discourse errors -At last when I went to bed it was four o'clock.
Reasons for making mistakes and errors.
L1 Interference : I bought my books at the library.
Overgeneralization : like students may use the -ed for past form for all words
Do you think errors are important in language learning-teaching?
Do you think it is important to correct errors?
What do you think could happen if we over correct?
What do you think could happen if we do not correct errors?
According to the Webster's Desk Dictionary "error" is a deviation of accuracy or correctness and "mistake" is anerror caused by lack of skill, attention, knowledge, etc.
What are errors?
There is no chance to let ss share their ideas
Waste of time in correcting the same errors again and again.
Ss are afraid to participate and to make mistakes while speaking.
Teachers end up correcting things that are not necessarily wrong.
NO CORRECTION AT ALL
Ss may record incorrect information.
Teacher may feel guilty for not correcting
Ss start doubting that the teacher is competent.
Observers may think that teachers are lazy and they do not care about ss.
When and How to correct errors and give Feedback
Aim of correcting errors
to make teachers more aware of the significance of learner´s errors.
to help teachers develop positive strategies of error corrections.
to show teachers a range of techniques for correcting oral and written errors.
The idea of correcting errors, derives from views of language learning which were popular in the 1950's and 1960's. It was believed that language which was learned by repetition of correct forms until they became automatic.
Walz (1992 as found in Ommagio 1993) classifies error-correction procedures into three basic categories which are: (i) self correction with the teacher's help, (ii) peer correction, and (iii)teacher correction.
Teacher´s control and correction will be tight.
Teacher's direct control and correction will be less.
(i)SELF-CORRECTION WITH TEACHER HELPING
Teacher localizes the error without providing the correct form by repeating the ss response.
Instead of supplying the correct answer, the teacher provides options for the incorrect or missing element as in an oral multiple choice.
Rephrasing a question:
After a formally correct, but inappropriate response to the original formulation has been given.
Providing your own answer:
Teacher provides his/ her own answer to the question, thereby supplying a model.
Repetition of an answer with correction:
Without making an over correction the teacher repeats the ss response, subtly correcting the mistake. This technique is somewhat indirect: some ss will pick up the cue while others won't.
(ii) PEER CORRECTION
Ss are able to provide feedback for their peers
Ss may work in small groups in conversation activities, with a group of correction, paying attention to form and/ or content.
(iii) TEACHER CORRECTION.
Direct correction: Teachers can correct ss directly by modeling the appropriate form of the utterance.
Indirect correction: This technique involves the repetition of a ss response with a correction made, but without drawing the ss attention to the change or requiring a repetition of the corrected material.
Convey the idea that mistakes are a natural part of learning.
Focus on what ss say right as well as what they say wrong.
Allow ss time to correct themselves
Count to three before you jump in.
Use appropriate techniques depending on the activity.
Focus on helping them become better and more independent communicators.
Encourage ss to try, try, try...
Don´t give the ss the right answer immediately or if another ss can supply it.
Don't interrupt when they are practicing in groups or pairs unless it is necessary.
Don't put the ss on the spot by identifying the person who made the mistake.
Don't bombard ss with corrections and information.
Don't get discouraged or lose your patience when ss make a lot of mistakes.
Don't forget to review, review, review...
Ommagio, A. (1993) Teaching Language in Context. Heinle and Heinle
Rea Dickins P.;Germaine K. (2011) Evaluation USA, OUP.