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Western Civ. Greek Project
Transcript of Western Civ. Greek Project
Apollo with a tortoise shell lyre
Pan with Pan pipes
The word music comes from the word Muses
Only fragments remain of ancient Greek music
Music was Monophonic
Music was less about pleasant notes, but more about a mathematical and philosophical response... "the universe vibrating in harmony."
Our music was once divided into its proper forms...It was not permitted to exchange the melodic styles of these established forms and others. Knowledge and informed judgment penalized disobedience. There were no whistles, unmusical mob-noises, or clapping for applause. The rule was to listen silently and learn; boys, teachers, and the crowd were kept in order by threat of the stick. . . . But later, an unmusical anarchy was led by poets who had natural talent, but were ignorant of the laws of music...Through foolishness they deceived themselves into thinking that there was no right or wrong way in music, that it was to be judged good or bad by the pleasure it gave. By their works and their theories they infected the masses with the presumption to think themselves adequate judges. So our theatres, once silent, grew vocal, and aristocracy of music gave way to a pernicious theatrocracy...the criterion was not music, but a reputation for promiscuous cleverness and a spirit of law-breaking.
Held at Mt. Olympia in Greece
Truce called during games; athletes were allowed to travel
Only free men who spoke Greek
Foot races, boxing, wresting, pankration, javelin, chariot races, discus and long jump
Prize: olive branch and honor
Held in honor of Melicertes and Poseidon
Held in Corinth
About 228 B.C. Romans could participate
Women were free to compete in these games (music and poetry)
Prize: Pine leaves and honor
Held at Delphi
Featured music and poetry competitions
Prize: wreath of Bay
Honorary games: no prize money
Acting and Dance Competitions
Flute and Kithara
Held in Olympia
Prizes: olive crowns, cow meat, portraits
Zeus aiming a lightning bolt
c. 470-460 BC
Zeus aims his lightning bolt at a giant not shown as an eagle sits perched on his other hand.
Athena with Hercules
c. 490-470 BC
Athena serves Hercules wine, the goddess is depicted with spear, snake-trimmed cloak, and a small owl in her hand. Hercules is seen with lion cape and club
Apollo with Muse
c. 430 BC
Apollo stands holding a laurel branch, next to a seated Muse with lyre.
c. 340 BC
A bronze youth, possibly Hermes, holding a spherical object.
c. 130-100 BC
This famous statue of Aphrodite, originally unearthed on the Greek island of Melos, is commonly known as the Venus de Milo.
c. 460 BC
Poseidon is poised casting his trident (missing). The statue is sometimes identified as a representation of Zeus.
Poseidon and Amymone
c. 3rd Century
Poseidon, holding a trident, seduces the Nymph Amymone, who reclines behind a water jug. A winged Eros (love god) flies between the pair.
Euphoria and the Bull
c. 2nd Century
Zeus abducts the Phoenician princess Europa, carrying her over the sea in the guise of a bull.
Poetry played an integral role in the communication of Greek mythology.
Two of the earliest European literary works are the epic poetic works of the Illiad and The Odyssey, believed to be written by Homer.
A second poet, Hesiod, also wrote in the same genre and several of his writings remain. He picked up where Homer left off with his work called Theogony (Origin of the Gods). This volume was critical in mythological origin and development as one of the fullest accounts of early Greek hymns.
Only pieces of writings from several other Greek poets remain.
Most of the still widely known Greek poetry comes from the Archaic period, 800-500 B.C. This period was mythological foundational to the periods after as it solidified a cultural mindset of the different roles between god and man.
As humanism progressed within culture, so did the images, descriptions, and tales told in Greek poetry. Poetry highlighted the stages of this movement. Poetry dealing with chronologically older “events” spoke of the origins of God, then moving to interactions between god and man, and then progressing into man’s achievements despite limited divine activity.
When we think of Greek mythology and its poetry, we often immediately think of the gods and goddesses, but to the authors and dramatists of the early Greek periods, the age of heroes and high humanism was far more interesting and often much more their focus.
The Romans altered the names of the literarily established Greek gods into their own gods.
Greek mythology really took off because of Homer's works The Iliad and The Odyssey.
These important pieces of literature gave structure for the beliefs in Greek Mythology.
They principal gods such as Zeus, Dionysus, Ares, Athena, Apollo, Poseidon, and other gods that lived on Mt. Olympus.
It was there that they ruled the earth, letting man fend for themselves and intervening when they pleased.
Greek citizens devoted themselves to different gods. Devotees of Dionysus (god of wine and agricultural fertility) would engage in ecstatic dancing and frenzied prayers.
The Eleusinian cult worshiped Demeter and Persephone where they enacted in rituals where they felt purified and reborn, allowing them to have an enjoyable life after death.
Many Greeks gave prayers, offerings, and did purification rituals to appease the gods .Often in times of trouble, it was popular to consult the oracles who could predict the future.
In the early Greek history, there was no official body of priests who controlled the religious matters of the cities or any set doctrines. Due to the geography, the beliefs and rituals varied from town to town and city to city.
One of the most important ideals that came from Homer was the ideal of arete. They believed that the gods could bless you with an excellent life. This ideal played a much larger role in the lives of the Greeks as the city-states took place and reason and democracy eventually took place over the dominant belief in the greek mythology.