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Muscles

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Mrs. Bowen

on 29 October 2018

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Transcript of Muscles

The number of muscle fibers cannot be increased through exercise.







Muscles grow larger through muscle cell growth (new protein filaments).
Isotonic
: tension remains unchanged and the muscle's length changes. (Lifting at a constant speed)
Muscles
The Truth About
Pre-Workouts...
How does the structure of our muscles relate to their function?
Sliding Filament Theory
What is a
pre-workout?
A wide range of products...
-Many contain:
-stimulants
-simple carbohydrates
-protein
-herbs
Designed to give users a "maximal workout experience"
One of the most common questions for a personal trainer...
"What kind of pre-workout should I take?"
well...
It's important to look at all of the ingredients...
-
Stimulants
(caffeine, guarana, green tea extract, etc.)

-
Simple carbohydrates

-
Protein

-
Herbal derivatives
Caffeine
is the most widely used stimulant in the world.
Is it safe?
No nutritional value.
Absorbed from the stomach and peaks in the blood in 1-2 hours.
Effects:
HR increases
Blood vessels dilate
Breathing tubes dilate
Blood flow to stomach decreases, while blood flow to muscles increases
dehydrating
that said... I am quite the caffeine fiend...
How could these changes affect you during a workout?
Simple Carbohydrate
is your body's preferred source of fuel
easy to digest
sugar!
breaks down quickly
provides fast energy (not too long-lasting)
what could this do for you prior to a workout?
Guarana:

-Guaranine-?
-Turns out... it's just caffeine!
-About twice as much as coffee!
What about supplements that contain caffeine AND guarana?
Is it safe?
Here are some of the most common:
Green tea extract:
Polyphenols
prevent inflammation
reduce swelling
Some caffeine
Why is this useful for athletes?
Protein powders are commonly ingested by athletes in an attempt to build bigger muscles
Anything beyond that is just expensive pee!
You are built of
proteins:
Do they work?
You DO have a small increased uptake window for about 20 minutes following a workout
They are NOT a preferred source of energy for your body (you'll use carbs and fats first)
You can only absorb about 0.8 - 1.5 grams/kg of body weight per day
Herbal derivatives
can be a range of substances taken from plants for all kinds of things...
Some are legitimate and helpful, but many are never tested by the FDA- so who knows what their real impact on our bodies could be!
You guys will look into many of these tomorrow...
So the bottom line is...
There are SO many pre-workouts out there- you just have to do the research before you blindly start popping pills and powders!
So lets go do that!...
Get into groups of 2 or 3 and come up and get some information on a pre-workout.

Look at the ingredients and description and figure out what your supplement is for.

Tomorrow we will go to library and investigate these further!
How many types of muscles are found in the body?
Cardiac Muscle
Intercalated Disks
Striations
Multinucleated
Is cardiac muscle voluntary or involuntary?
And more mitochondria!
Why?
striations are a result of the structure of
building blocks of muscle fibers...
sarcomeres
mitochondria
make
for the cell
energy
energy keeps our hearts beating...
more mitochondria = more energy!
Skeletal Muscle
Multinucleated
What is the makeup of skeletal muscle?
Muscular Contraction
Also known as Sliding Filament Theory...
Smooth Muscle
Similarities to Cardiac Muscle?
Where is smooth muscle found?
Is smooth muscle voluntary or involuntary?
Where is cardiac muscle found?
Multiple Striations
how our muscles
contract!
So
sarcomeres
...
We know these are the most basic units of our muscles and they are really small (you could fit about 50 of them side by side in the width of a piece of paper).








But within sarcomeres, there are even smaller units called
myofilaments
(proteins that interact with one another to make the sarcomere contract)
the main proteins that can be found in the sarcomere are...
Actin
- THIN filament made of hundreds of spherical molecules that form long chains (2 chains coil around each other to form a helix)







Myosin
- THICK filament made of 300-500 individual myosin II molecues
for these filaments to move, an impulse must first come from the brain
When the impulse reaches each individual sarcomere,
calcium
is released and the myosin cross-bridges are able to bind to the actin and contract the muscle
as a result of the binding between actin and myosin, the muscle is able to shorten and pull in toward the middle (producing movement!)
thank your actin and myosin!
Major Muscles of the Human Body
Muscle Fiber Types
Training Strategies
DOMS
Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types
Olympic sprinters have ~80% fast twitch fibers

Marathoners have ~80% slow twitch fibers
What you're born with, you're basically stuck with...
BUT- Don't let this discourage you!


Genetic differences may be dramatic at the elite levels of athletic competition... but training can dramatically improve personal performance of a typical athlete!
Strength is a result of three factors that overlap:
So how do we
improve our level of strength?
mechanical strength
(muscle's force, joint capabilities).
neurological strength
(how strong or weak is the signal that tells the muscle to contract)
physiological strength
(muscle size, cross sectional area, available crossbridging, responses to training)
hypertrophy
The ratio of
sets
,
repetitions
, and how much
weight
you use determines what type of impact training will have on you
Lots of sets
+Few reps
+Heavy weight
------------------------
=hypertrophy
No matter how many repetitions you do, always use a heavy enough weight so that the last rep is a struggle, but not such a struggle that you compromise good form
Few sets
+Lots of reps
+Light weight
------------------------
=muscular endurance
Note:
Specificity Principle
- you must work each muscle group to have strength gains in that particular part of the body.
Moderate sets
+Moderate reps
+Moderate weight
------------------------
=strength
Isokinetic
: Speed of movement through the range of motion is held at a constant
Isometric
: no movement occurs at joints
The types of muscle movements in exercise...
Eccentric Phase
- muscle lengthens
+ limit stress on joints
- not that practical
And finally... something sad, but true.
If you don't use it... you lose it.
this is called
atrophy
Type I (Red, Slow Oxidative)
- slow twitch, fat is the predominate source of fuel.
Repeated low-level contractions, ex: walking or low intensity cycling for 30 mins.

Type IIa (White, Fast Oxidative)
- fast twitch, carbohydrates and fat are predominate source of fuel.
Activities involving speed, strength and power, e.g. moderately weight training and fast running, ex: 400 meters.

Type IIb (White, Fast Glycolytic)
- fast twitch (fastest), carbohydrates are a predominate source of fuel.
Short, fast, bursts of power (but rapid fatigue), ex: heavy weight training, power lifting, and 100 meter sprints.
Concentric Phase
- muscle shortens
What do we already know about muscles?
1. What are muscles made up of?
2. What are muscles attached to?
3. How may muscles do we have?
4. How do we build muscle?
5. Why do our muscles get sore?
6. What is one thing that you want to learn regarding muscles?
The Assignment will be DUE on Monday at 11:59pm submitted on Canvas!

Assignment Requirements:
Research at least 8 ingredients found in the assigned pre-workout.
For each ingredient, you will determine the physiological role played by the compound.
Are the 'marketing claims' supporting what is found on the label?
Please cite all your sources that you have used.
You personal opinion of whether or not you would take this supplement prior to a workout.
Muscle Fatigue
Why do our muscle get sore?
Resistance Training
Resistance Training Programs
How would you design a resistance training program for someone trying to get
healthier
?
How would you design a resistance training program for
hypertrophy
?
You can do resistance training for other stuff too!...
1) Maximize energy expenditure.
5) Incorporate a variety of exercises
1) Maximize Mechanical Tension
Weight Loss
2) Moderate intensity
*why?
3) Progressive overload
4) Avoid isometric & high load training
*why?
6) Emphasize correct form and breathing technique
7) Leave up to 48 hours for recovery between workouts with multi-joint exercises
2) Promote (reasonable) Muscle Damage
3) Maximize Metabolic Stress
80-95% of 1RM
4) Include multi-joint exercises
Functional Strength
Performance (Sport specific)
1. Resistance Training for health

2. Important factors to promoting
muscle hypertrophy

3. Examples to promote muscle
hypertrophy.
3 things we are looking at:
Don't be that guy...
*When should you inhale/exhale?
Resistance Exercise
It varies from person to person.
For long lasting change, there needs to be:
Muscle Fiber Adaptations
Chronic Hypertrophy- increase in size of muscle
Require more than 16 workouts
Fast twitch/glycolytic/type 2 has greater potential to increase in size
Strength Adaptations
Initial improvements (first 2 to 8 weeks)= neural adaptations
More efficient pathways
Additional motor unit recruitment
Synergistic muscle recruitment
Bone tissue adaptations
Bone begins a process of modeling
1) protein manufacturing
2) proteins deposited in between bone cells
3) bone matrix becomes mineralized on outer surfaces
Transient Hypertrophy- short term "pump"
Fluid accumulation from blood plasma in intracellular spaces of the muscle
Long term improvements= hypertrophy
Activities that stimulate bone growth need to include:
specificity (Be Specific!)
overload- Barely able to complete last rep with good form
variation- Mix it up when it gets easy!
Body
Composition
Adaptations
increase fat-free mass
decrease % of body fat
increased energy expenditure (during exercise & at rest)
The higher the workload, the higher the energy expenditure afterward
(workload= # of sets x # of reps x load)
Heart Rate
Adaptations
Acute (short term)
Chronic (long term)
elevated immediately after a workout
changes with varying amounts of resistance, # of reps, & muscles involved
(beneficial) reduction in heart rate
as much as 11%
Blood Pressure Adaptations
~1 in 4 Americans have high blood pressure... increased risk for heart attack, stroke
During resistance exercises, BP increases
Who should be cautious with resistance training?
What types of exercises would be safest?
Heart Size Adaptations
Increase in walls of the heart!
Not normally a concern unless already have HCM or abusing steroids
LDL cholesterol= bad
HDL cholesterol= good
Glucose Metabolism Adaptations
Glucose tolerance
(how quickly you metabolize glucose)
Insulin
(causes cells to take up glucose from the blood)
Resistance exercise can improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity!
High glycemic foods
1. Muscle Fibers
2. Strength
3. Bone Tissue
4. Body Composition
5. Heart Rate
6. Blood Pressure
7. Heart Size
8. Fat
9. Glucose Metabolism
Adaptations:
Sufficient stimulus
Adaptation
Introduction of new, greater stimulus
Fat adaptations!
Which reduces obesity and type 2 diabetes rates!
HDL Cholesterol = Good!
When the lipoprotein has more protein than cholesterol.
LDL Cholestrol = BAD!
When the lipoprotein has more cholesterol than protein
Low-density lipoprotein
High-density Lipoprotein
1. Contain ONE nucleus in each cell
2. Have mitochondria (just not as much!
All About DOMS
(delayed onset muscle soreness)
normal physiological response
sensation of pain or discomfort, can impair physical training and performance
typically peaks 24-48 hours after exercise
gone within 96
...what is it?
What causes it?
How we know it's NOT lactic acid...
Lactate levels return to normal 30-60 minutes post exercise for both concentric (DOMS peaks within 24-48 hours after an intense eccentric exercise.)
Concentric exercise produces 60% more lactate than eccentric
DOMS is predominantly caused by
ECCENTRIC exercise
resistance training (Slower reps and "Negatives")
downhill running
plyometrics
Damage to the muscle cell membrane sets off inflammatory response.
Metabolic waste products also attract
Neutrophils
***Neutrophils can further damage the cell membrane.
Treatments?
1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
(asprin, ibuprofen - Helps with inflammation and swelling)
2. Nutritional supplements
(vitamins C & E - Help reduce amount of free radicals)
3. Warm-up -
increased muscle temperature
4. Repeated-bout effect -
repeated bouts performed 1-6 weeks before initial higher intensity bouts... becomes easier with time and training
During Eccentric exercise....
This then leads to formation of metabolic waste products
Nerve endings are irritated and cause a sensation of pain.
The difference between DOMS and Muscle Strains...
*Muscle strain - if you work out again, you can can severely worsen the injury.

*DOMS - Eccentric exercise is still possible without further muscle damage.
During the eccentric phase, myosin crossbridges are still facing inward... as weight is lowered and muscle is lengthened, more breakage occurs.
It's all about the the Cross Bridges!
*Generate free radicals- damage cell membrane EVEN MORE!
*if it doesn't go away within 96 hours- maybe more than DOMS alone...
A lot more mitochondria!

*Just like cardiac muscle
Voluntary or involuntary?
Traditional determination of Muscle Fiber type:
-Muscle Biopsy
1. T-Test Shuffle (sec)
2. Broad Jump (Distance)
3. Single Leg 3 horizontal hops Consecutive (Distance)
4. Single Leg Stabilizing Squats (Sec)
5. Speed Rings (Sec)
6. Speed Hurdles (Sec)
give muscle its striped appearance
allows all of the cells of the heart to beat simultaneously
(Less weight - More Endurance)
*why?
- Increases anabolic hormones compared to single joint
Leads to soreness
*does more damage to muscle & increase blood flow
-byproducts of anaerobic metabolism are H+ and lactate
*How can we do this?
*why?
Let's look at some case studies!
The power of thought
(why mental practice works!)

Now it's your turn!
Partner up and complete the following:

Pick a type of athlete to focus on. Then, list three different types of work outs with that athlete trying to gain hypertrophy, strength and endurance. Focus on 2 muscle groups.

Then, list 2 exercises to help within that athlete with the specificity principle.
The body’s neural response to resistance training is to recruit muscle fibers to complete the task, but muscle fibers become tired rather quickly.
This is due to muscle tissue’s main source of energy, ATP.
ATP is used up very quickly in your muscles, which is why you can’t do an unlimited number of bicep curls.
The more stress on the muscle....the more ATP used up!
Resting for a minute or two helps restore some, but not all, of the ATP stores in your muscle.


Muscle tissue converts stored creatine into new ATP to power your muscles.
While your muscles may still feel tired between sets, some muscle energy will get restored.
This is called the phosphagen system. (8-10 seconds)
Muscles begin to produce an acidic environment known as acidosis. (this is why muscles burn).
ALSO....
Releasing lactate helps neutralize the burning effect and helps regenerate energy!
More Training = Muscles become more efficient using lactate to reduce acidosis and converting lactate waste to energy!
Front
Back
(allows the eyebrows to raise)
(elevates and retracts the mandible- needed for chewing)
(rotation of the head to the opposite side and flexion of the neck)
(depresses the hyoid)
(elevates, depresses, rotates, and retracts the scapula)
(Protracts and stabilizes scapula, assists in upward rotation)
(Adducts, extends and internally rotates the arm)
(Flexes, rotates, and laterally flexes the vertebral column)
(Flexes the vertebral column)
(Flexes the forearm at the elbow)
extends and abducts the wrist
Flexes and adducts the hand
Shoulder abduction, flexion and extension
Flexion, horizontal adduction, and inward rotation of the humerus
Flexion of the elbow
extends the arm at the shoulder and extends the forearm at the elbow
extends the forearm at the elbow
flexes the elbow joint
extends and abducts the wrist
Flexes hand at wrist
Flexes and abducts the hand
Flexes the middle phalanges. If action continues, flexes proximal phalanges, hand at wrist, and forearm at elbow.
Abducts and flexes thigh at hip
Flexes thigh at hip, extends leg at knee
Extends leg at knee
(aka IT band) Reinforces the fascia lata, extends, abducts, laterally rotates the hip, and contributes to lateral knee stabilization.
Abducts thigh at hip, medially rotates thigh and posterior fibers, and laterally rotates thigh at hip
Flexes and laterally rotates thigh at hip, flexes vertebral column
Adducts and flexes thigh at hip
Adducts thigh at hip and flexes leg at knee/medially rotates leg when knee is flexed
Adducts and flexes at hip
Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh at hip
Extends leg at knee
Plantar flexes foot and flexes leg at knee
Plantar flexes and everts foot at ankle
*Plantar flexes foot
Dorsiflexes foot at ankle and inverts foot
Extends toes and dorsiflexes foot at ankle
helps extend the scalp so that the eyebrows can raise
rotates the head and flexes the neck
*elevates, depresses, rotates, and retracts the scapula
*Shoulder abduction, flexion and extension
externally rotate the humerus and stabilize the shoulder joint
Laterally rotates the arm at the shoulder, adducts the arm, and stabilizes the shoulder
Adducts, medially rotates, and extends at the shoulder
*Adducts, extends and internally rotates the arm
*Flexes the forearm at the elbow
*extends and abducts the wrist
Extends forearm at elbow
Retracts and elevates the medial border of scapula
*extends the arm at the shoulder and extends the forearm at the elbow
Extends the forearm at elbow
*Flexes and adducts the hand
Extends wrist and fingers
Extends and ulnar deviates (adducts) hand at wrist
*Flexes, rotates, and laterally flexes the vertebral column
*Abducts and flexes thigh at hip
*Abducts thigh at hip, medially rotates thigh and posterior fibers, and laterally rotates thigh at hip
Extends, laterally rotates thigh at hip
*(aka IT band) Reinforces the fascia lata, extends, abducts, laterally rotates the hip, and contributes to lateral knee stabilization.
Extends thigh at hip
Extends thigh at hip
Plantar flexes foot
Adducts and flexes thigh at hip
Extends thigh at hip
*Adducts thigh at hip and flexes leg at knee/medially rotates leg when knee is flexed
*Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh at hip
*Plantar flexes foot and flexes leg at knee
(Achilles) is lifted by contracting gastrocnemius and soleus muscles
Note... * means you already wrote this action down.
Muscle Fiber Battery of Tests
Neutrophils
White blood cells released in response to high intensity activity and increases inflammation.
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