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Exxon Valdez

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Viktor Sturegård

on 5 March 2013

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Transcript of Exxon Valdez

Bligh Reef Exxon Valdez Oil Spill A good day to Biodegrade hard By Beatrice Nordlöf, Olivia Söderman, Tove Rydén Sonesson, Viktor Sturegård Biodegradation Natural process

Bacteria or other microorganisms

Organic molecules Fatty acids or CO2

The act of adding materials to contaminated environments such as oil spill sites to cause an acceleration of the natural biodegradation process. Bioremediation Fertilization


GEM's (Genetically Engineered Microorganisms) Is very well developed when handling oil contaminated soil

Marine systems more complex

The method has been investigated since 1942 Is very well developed when handling oil contaminated soil

Marine systems more complex

The method has been investigated since 1942

Three different types of bioremediation in marine systems Bioremediation and the
Exxon Valdez oil spill βBeta-Oxidation Cycle TCA-cycle Petroleum Fatty Acid Acyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA CH3 O S CoA R O S CoA Terminal Oxidation Beta-Oxidation Beta-Oxidation Fatty Acid Metabolism 24th of March, 1989

Prince William Sounds Bligh Reef, Alaska

Spill was approx. 42 000 m3 crude oil

Affected aprox. 2100 km Flushing seawater
Offshore booms and skimmers
Heated water
Manual cleanup

Bioremediation Fertilization Clean-up measures Is very well developed when handling oil contaminated soil

Marine systems more complex

The method has been investigated since 1942 Petroleum "The toxicity of petroleum hydrocabons to microorganisms, plants, animals and humans is well established." Thousands of different compounds, alkane chains and Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) HCB

Utilizable Nitrogen Source Factors required for biodegradation of petroleum Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria (HCB) Bacteria with the ability to bind, emulsify, transport and degrade hydrocarbon compounds. Properties required for HCB Membrane bound hydrocarbon oxidizing enzymes (Oxygenase)
Ability to adhere to hydrocarbons
Mechanisms for desorption from hydrocarbons Alcanivorax borkumensis Marine organism

Dominating when oil pollution occur

Mainly use alkene chains as its source of energy HCB Adhesion Desorption Emulsifiers Physical interaction in HCB Physical interaction in Alcanivorax borkumensis Adhesion of microorganisms to the hydrocarbon/water interface is the first step
in the growth cycle of microorganisms on water-insouluble hydrocarbons. A variety of fimbriae and fibrils
Outer membrane and other surface proteins and lipids
Small cell-surface molecules Different types of bacterial hydrophobins For bacteria to continue to multiply, they must be able to move from the depleted droplet to another. In any heterogeneous system, such as microorganisms growing in water-insoluble hydrocarbons, boundaries are of fundamental importance to the behavior of the system as a whole. Increase hydrocarbon surface area

Examples of emulsifiers: Microorganisms can only only degrade certain compounds of petroleum

Once the utilizable petroleum sources in their vicinity is depleted the have to move on

The method of desorption is species-specific Evaluation Advantages Disadvantages Biomass (Energy)
Carbon dioxide
Water Worldwide demand for petroleum as a source of fuel and as raw material leads to annual runoff into the oceans Bioassays has shown that even small amounts of petroleum can have microstatic or microcidal effetcs Minimal physical disruption of a site
No significant adverse effects when used correctly
Simpler and more thorough solution than mechanical
Possibly less costly than other approaches Undetermined effectiveness
Takes time to work
May not be appropriate at sea (open water)
Approach must be specifically tailored for each site Hydrophobic effect is driving force Creates biosurfactant
Extra layer
Anionic glucolipids
Decrease water tension

Use emulsifiers

Create biofilm
Around the oil dropplet Glycolipids Fatty Acids Large complexes of polymers Sources Course literature
Scientific Articles
Other literature
Documentary For the full list of sources please contact us after the presentation 1. 2. 3. 4.
Full transcript