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Concept Map: Sound Waves

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by

Sophie Salomon

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Concept Map: Sound Waves

Materials and Staffing:
Technology
Infrastructure
Staffing
Signage / Graphics
Basic supplies
Target Age Group:
9-12 Year Olds
Age Appropriateness
Sound is a 5th grade Standards of Learning requirement, so the verbiage is targeted to 9-12 year olds. The exhibit seeks to expand the students knowledge of sound without exceeding their comprehension.

The exhibits are either hands-on or quick but attention grabbing spectacles, and are targeted to keep the children's interest while also demonstrating the characteristics and capacity of sound.

While each exhibit section may not appeal to all children, there are many different choices of interactive activities to keep each child engaged, whatever his or her personal interest.
Activities:
Enter through a reverberating tunnel
Experience the Doppler effect with a sound emitting pendulum
Listen to sound waves coming through different media
Play a video game requiring the application of SONAR
Speak into an oscilloscope to see the compression of sound waves
Observe the effect on the flames of a Ruben's tube when sound is played
"Tune" some glass bottles filled with water
Get hands on at an Arts and Crafts table
Big Ideas:
sound is a compression wave
its characteristics include vibration, compression, frequency, wave length, and amplitude
it travels differently through different media (solids, liquids, glass, vacuum)
sound applications are varied and complex - for example, music, SONAR
Concept Map: Sound Waves
Museum
Flow:
To Infinity...
And Beyond!
Project
Doppler Effect Pendulum
Arts and Crafts:
Sound Waves Through Various Media:
This will not be a hands-on activity, but rather the opportunity to listen to the recording of sound being played through a vacuum, a gas, a liquid a solid. The speed of sound is too fast to have a practical experiment in the context of the museum. The sounds will fulfill the SOL requirement, and show how sound interacts differently depending on the medium through which it is travelling.
Reverberation Tunnel:
Ruben's Tube:
Oscilloscope:
http://www.physics-chemistry-interactive-flash-animation.com/electricity_electromagnetism_interactive/oscilloscope_description_tutorial_sounds_frequency.htm
SONAR video game:
http://games.bg72.com/en/educational/sonar.html
Sample Verbiage: Reverberation
When the sound bounces back off of the walls before your ears have stopped hearing the original sound, reverberation occurs instead of echoing.

The sound will appear to be continuous, despite originating in pulses, because of the echoic memory, meaning your brain continues to hear a sound for a short time after it has ended.
Infrastructure:
Table and chairs for craft table
Tunnel for reverberation
Pendulum which emits sound
Glass barrier for Ruben's Tube
Technology:
-Oscilloscope with microphone
-Sony Headphones (x5)
-Ruben's tube
-SONAR video game (2x)
-Video game consoles (2x)
-Television screens (2x)
-Video game controllers (2x)
-Screen for instructions (2x)
Staffing:
One full-time employee ($10/hr) - operate the Ruben's tube for 10 minutes at every 45 minute interval
Two volunteers to operate the craft table and the SONAR video game
Technologicians will be shared with other exhibits - not counted here
"Tuning" wine glass music:
Sample Verbiage:
What is sound?
Sound travels in compression waves, also called longitudinal waves
Sound is energy which is produced by matter vibrating

Sample Verbiage: Frequency
Frequency refers to how often the compressions occur, or how fast a full cycle of compression and refraction passes
Sample Verbiage: Wavelength
Sample Verbiage: Amplitude
Wavelength is the distance between the middle of two compressions which are next to each other
Amplitude causes loudness in sound and is the maximum vibration movement that can occur
Sample Verbiage: Sound through different media
Sample Verbiage: Oscilloscope
Sample Verbiage: Music
Sample Verbiage: Ruben's Tube
Sample Verbiage: Doppler Effect
Sample Verbiage: SONAR
Sample Verbiage: Transmission of Sound
SO
und
NA
vigation and
R
anging uses the way that sound bounces back to determine the shape of what is being detected. The speed of return and sound characteristics can be used to determine the shape or even the physical components of something which cannot be seen.
Relevance of the Exhibits to the Topics

When the source of a sound approaches the listener, each new compression has a little less distance to travel. This makes the sound seem to increase in pitch because the frequency increases as it gets closer. As it leaves again, the opposite is true with the frequency appearing to decrease as each new sound wave has to travel farther.
Sound travels at different speeds depending on through what it is being transferred
In air, the speed is 343 meters/second
In water, it is 1497 meters/second
In solids, it is much faster: through iron, for example, it travels at 5120 meters/second
Sound cannot travel in space because space is a vacuum: there are no particles to vibrate
The closer the particles of a substance are, the faster the vibrations transfer, and the faster the sound therefore moves
The compression of sound waves can cause the air fueling a fire to produce distinct wave shapes at different frequencies of sound.
Oscilloscopes use the sound pressure to visually represent the waves as they occur.
Music, too, is caused by vibrations. Singing is produced by the vibrating of vocal cords, pianos work using tiny wooden mallets which hit differently vibrating metal bars which produce different sounds, guitars use the vibration of the strings to reverberate air within the instrument - the possibilities with sound, especially music, are endless!
Sound is transmitted when particles which are near one another vibrate because of the movement of the source of the sound, for example, the sides of a bell. Each particle horizontally sends the vibration to the other particles, causing the sound to spread.
Each exhibit helps to demonstrate a topic in a tactile and concrete way to help the students understand the concept.
The Doppler Effect exhibit demonstrates sound frequency as well as the phenomenon itself
The video game shows sound application with SONAR and demonstrates the characteristics of sounds

The reverberation tunnel shows how the human brain perceives sound and how echos can combine with echoic memory
The oscilloscope demonstrates the characteristics of sound waves and how different sounds have different characteristics
The earphones recording sound through various mediums show how particle proximity affects sound
The Ruben's Tube demonstrates the principles of air compression and sound frequency
The musical section with various objects that produce different sounds uses all the principles of sound characteristics and shows another application of sound
The crafts table demonstrates the principles of sound transmission and production
Relevance of exhibits, cont.
Basic Supplies
Anti-bacterial wipes (20 packs / month)
Gas for Ruben's Tube
Paper cups - 3 bags of 200 per month OR as needed
Yarn - 15 balls per month OR as needed
Paper - as needed
Bottles (plastic) to make music - 25
Graphics and Signage:
The majority of the signage is simple enough to be displayed on traditional signs - at least twelve signs will be necessary, and they will include basic graphics to demonstrate sound principles
Two signs (both for the craft table) will be required digitally as instructive videos. The tablets are included under the technology section.
Bibliography:
http://www.guitar-guide-easy.com/images/stories/acoustic6string.jpg
http://pages.ca.inter.net/~deepsky/Oscilloscope_Waveform1d-crop1.jpg
http://www.lascells.com/perch/resources/la50-550rubenstube-1-w870h600.jpg
http://soflagrlprobz.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/lg-tv.jpg
http://rvcapehatteras.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/video-game-controller-graphic-agoclemz.jpg
http://www.fullcompass.com/common/products/lg/3639.jpg
http://www.cinemafunk.com/sites/default/files/pendulum-ease-in-ease-out.jpg
http://techpaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/best-three-affordable-headphones.jpg
http://www.che.utah.edu/outreach/modules/RubensTube/title-image.jpg
http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/x/glass-bottle-different-water-levels-14101289.jpg
This will be recreated using a pendulum.
The reverberation with be recreated with music playing in the entrance tunnel
Every 45 minutes, the operator will play a ten minute demonstration using different sound frequencies or musical songs.
The children will see how bottles with different amounts of water, when tapped, produce different sounds, and select a group of bottles to play a simple song.
These projects will demonstrate the creation and transference of sound.
Full transcript