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Transcript of Rhetorical Situation
What is it?
Bitzer: "...a natural context of persons, events, objects, relations, and an exigence which strongly invites utterance [a reaction]."
-Aristotle: "Rhetoric is the study of the available means of persuasion."
-Quintillian: "Rhetoric is the art of speaking well."
-Kenneth Burke: "Wherever there is persuasion, there is rhetoric, and wherever there is rhetoric, there is meaning."
-Andrea Lunsford: "Rhetoric is the art, practice, and study of human communication."
Lloyd Bitzer: "...rhetoric is a mode of altering reality, not by the direct application of energy to objects, but by the creation of discourse which changes reality through the mediation of thought and action."
Exigence + Audience + Constraints = Rhetorical Situation
(Constraints & Exigence)
or, WHO YOU ARE TRYING TO REACH WITH YOUR WRITING
or, SITUATIONAL FACTORS, including stance, environment, mood, etc.
is a response to repeated rhetorical situations
3 kinds of appeals:
Vatz: Perhaps the rhetor (or speaker) is the most influential factor in the situation because...
What is the discourse about?
Why is the discourse needed?
What is the discourse trying to accomplish?
[+ a Rhetor or Speaker]