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Creativity, participation and co-creation in new media: a co

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Gemma San Cornelio

on 7 November 2014

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Transcript of Creativity, participation and co-creation in new media: a co

Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology
MINECO HAR2010-18982
The project addresses the different ways of understanding
creativity, participation and cultural production
in digital media.

This is captured by the notion of
and articulated between productive practices and participatory logics within the creative and cultural industries.
Project: Creative practices and participation in new media
Six case studies –mainly based in the Spanish context- following a qualitative methodological approach (including ethnography, participant observation, and discourse analysis).
To describe
practices taking place in co-creative processes

different forms of
in these processes

To find out the
different models
of this relationship related to the tensions and ways to conciliate opposite participatory logics (e.g common good vs. profit and market motivations).
Objectives and methodology
- FC movement is too confined under the principles of open source software ethos.
- Different approaches to sustainability and business models.
- Connection between practices in FC lie in the moral justification behind them all.
- Crowdfunding as the opportunity to allow a new product to exist and to keep it under its original community vision.
Rooted in the free culture activist scene in Barcelona, focused on cultural production and software development. The main research in this area takes ‘mapping’ tech developers as a case study. A second research line focused on crowdfunding and in crowdsourced media production.

To identify different practices and motivations behind the engagement in cultural production under the free culture ethics.
Analyze the interconnections between different practices related to the free culture movement.
Case study of pioneer crowdsourced and crowdfunded media projects.


Ethnografic fieldwork through participant observation of tech developers and in-depth interviews.
Free culture and crowdsourced media production
Creativity, participation and co-creation in new media: a comparative analysis on participatory practices
Participation and
in digital culture (Jenkins)
Creative industries
(Hartley) and
Creative class
Free labor
(Lazzaratto) The institutionalization of the bohemia (Neff, 2005)
. The phenomenon of consumers that are increasingly participative in the process of making and circulating media content and experiences (Banks & Deuze, 2009).
Relating (implicitly or explicitly) industries with external agents that include audiences, fans, amateurs, or independent artists.
Relevance of users contribution to media: ‘non trivial component’ of media developed by consumers.
Oriented to
(Banks and Potts, 2010)
Theoretical framework

Innovation programs that incorporate artists in industries (Mediators)
The role of creative consumers (modders) in the software industries

Collective alternative creation
Free culture movement and open source production
Engagement of audiences in audiovisual collaborative projects (crowdsourcing and crowdfunding)

Creativity and limits of professional roles
Digital photography communities and the production of expertise
Incorporation of the user in the design of interactive artifacts (co-design)
Case Studies
- Co-creation led by companies and innovation-oriented.
- Artistic practices as useful.
- Legitimated through mentoring.
- Pre-conceptions of creativity and talent shape the material conditions

Specific public of private programmes aimed at connecting companies and artists (or creators in general) in order to foster innovation for a set period.

Research objectives
To identify structural conditions of artists or creators in mediating projects in Spain.
To analyze the conceptualization of the notions of artist, art, talent and creativity in mediating processes.

Document analysis and in-depth interviews.

Research focused on a case study of a community of modders in a machinima-based filmmaking tool.

To analyze the motivations of all creative agents involved as co-creators in what is perceived as a joint venture.
To understand different -and potentially conflictive- models for co-creation.

Discourse analysis in official and unofficial forums.

Co-creation communities (modders)
- Engagement and affective property (contribution to a broader enterprise but in its own terms).
- Compromise with quality and improvement of the work of the community and the enterprise.
Gemma San Cornelio, Antoni Roig, Elisenda Ardèvol

Universitat Oberta de Catalunya

Clash of co-creation models
Led by users, led by companies. Tension in the way they conceive 'the other' (mediators and modders). Complex relationships between ‘client’ and ‘provider’ in open source technologies. The problem of who determines needs and expertise (who can collaborate and how).

Cultural models
FC vs corporate culture. Commercialization seen as ethically coherent with FC principles as long as the (total or partial) use of the outcome is not restricted and can benefit the community. Compromise with a community, sustainability, moral justification (modders, FC, crowd)

Participation as an imperative (private and public)
Institutionalized participation seen as a cultural commandment: both in public institutions like City Councils, and private companies.
The selected cases cover a wide range of co-creation models and participatory logics: from processes directly inspired in the open source, free-culture movement, to processes linked to innovation goals of private companies.
Creative Citizens Conference
London, 18-09-2014

Gemma San Cornelio, Antoni Roig, Elisenda Ardèvol, Jordi Sánchez-Navarro,Edgar Gómez-Cruz, Joan Morales, Jaume Ferrer, Ruth Pagès, Talia Leibovitz, Debora Lanzeni

Research focused on a community of amateur photographers in Barcelona.

To analyze the creative practices of a collective through photography
To understand the impact of such practices as co-creation, innovation and markets

Ethnographic research

Photography communities

- Collective creation and learning
- Non-directive innovation through co-creation.
- Emergence of informal markets.
Observation a process of design of an interactive installation for children in a university lab

To analyze the conceptions and interactions between designers and participants
To understand the different logics of creativity in science and design.

Ethnographic research: participant observation and interviews
- Imagined user, but not really participatory
- users are taken progressively out of from the picture, as co-designers
Pagès, R.; San Cornelio, G. (2014) Material Conditions of Production and Hidden Romantic Discourses in New Media Artistic and Creative Practices.
Leonardo Electronic Almanac. Red Art
, Volum 20, n1, pp. 82-93.
San Cornelio, G., & Cruz, E. G. (2014). Co-creation and Participation as a Means of Innovation in New Media: An Analysis of Creativity in the Photographic Field.
International Journal of Communication
, 8, 20.
Roig, A., San Cornelio, G., Sánchez-Navarro, J., & Ardèvol, E. (2013). The fruits of my own labour: A case study on clashing models of co-creativity in the new media landscape.
International Journal of Cultural Studies.
Gomez Cruz, E.,; Ardèvol, E. (2013). Some ethnographic notes on a Flickr group.
, 6(1), pp. 35-44.
Leibovitz, T.; Sanchez-Navarro, J.; Roig, A. Collaboration and Crowdfunding in contemporary audiovisual production: The role of rewards and motivations for collaboration.
Cinergie:il cinema e le altre arti
. [disponible online en http://www.cinergie.it/?p=3214]
Roig, A. (2013) Participatory Film Production as Media Practice.
International Journal of Communication,
7, pp.1-21.
Outputs and resources
Transitional markets
Industries are interested in open cultural production as externalized test field, which allows for experimentation through collective: “transitional markets” where success stories can then be appropriated.

Compromise with quality
Raising the bar, improving the quality through participation (FC, mapping, modders, photography)

Notion of expertise
co-creation processes demand some sort of expertise from users. establishment of hierarchies.

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