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Social Work 309 Mexican Immigrants
Transcript of Social Work 309 Mexican Immigrants
Mexican Population What is a migrant Camp? Healthcare What is a Mexican Immigrant? •Educational Marginalization: confined to a lower or outer limit of educational system (Lum, 2010)
•Curanderos: natural faith healers (Lynch and Hanson, 2009)
•Hospice Services: elderly Latino population have lower rates of utilization of hospice services compared to Euro-Americans (Lum, 2010). Things to consider: Princesses References Current Demographics Socioeconomic Factors
Education Socioeconomic Factors
Naturalized US Citizen/not a US Citizen Socioeconomic Factors
Employment/Income Resilience Strategies The earliest inhabitants of Mexico are believed to have been hunters who migrated from Asia
Spanish explorer Francisco Fernandez de Cordoba
Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortez
The revolt against Spain in 1821
The Mexican-American War
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848
Mexican Immigration to the United States Whole side cited: Englekirk and Marin (2000) Forms and Mechanisms of
Oppression and Discrimination
Segregation after the World War II (Englekirk & Marin 2000)
Court case of Mendez vs. West Minster in 1946 (www.immigrationpolicy.org)
Deportation (Marsiglia et al. 2011) Familismo- family closeness/loyalty
Respecto- consideration for the sensibilities/needs of others
Orgullo cultural- ethnic pride
Machismo- bravery, courage, generosity
Marianismo- virtuous mother in the family Traditional Values (Holleran & Waller, 2003) Sociocultural Concepts
• Cultural diversity: differences between groups with characteristics based on culture, gender, age, religion, etc. (Lum, 2010).
• Cultural Awareness: learning of cultural background, issues, and relationships in a contextual sense (Lum, 2010).
• Culture Shock: normal and universal response to the unfamiliar (Lynch and Hanson, 2009). Cross-Cultural Competence: ability to think, feel, and act in a way that acknowledges, respects, and builds on ethic, cultural and linguistic diversity (Lynch, Hanson, 2009).
Interdependence/Individuality Continuum: Individuality is a value that some families hold where they believe children should “be who they are.” Interdependence is the primary value in other families where contributing to the family as a whole is far more important that expressing one’s individuality (Lynch, Hanson, 2009).
High-Context Cultures: rely on verbal communication then on understanding through shared experience, history, and implicit, messages (Lynch, Hanson, 2009) Sociocultural Concepts Cont'd Group Activity Education and Healthcare Sociocultural Concepts
Related to the Latino Population
Health care in Mexico started in 1791
Mexican health care program founded in 1943
Provided through private health care organizations
Operates entirely on the free-market system Medical Care for Documented and
Undocumented Latinos Homedes N, Ugalde A (2009) Private care
IMSS (Instituto Mexicano de Seguro Social)
Alternative treatment Medical care in Mexico continued Homedes N, Ugalde A (2009)
Out of 12.7 million Mexican-Americans only 45% have health insurance
In 2005 illegal immigrants are uninsured of 59% in the nation
25% of legal immigrants had health insurance in the
United States, compared to14% of U.S. citizens
Illegal immigrants represent about 15% of the nation's 47
million uninsured people which is a 30% of the increase since 1980
Albert, Nora G, Ennis, Sharon R & Ríos-Vargas, Merarys (2011, May). Health Statistics 37 million of the uninsured were employment-age adults ages 18 to 64
In 2010 only 84 percent of Hispanic children born in the U.S had health insurance coverage
78% illegal immigrants without health insurance coverage was $1.1 billion
45 million uninsured live in households with incomes under $50,000
Immigrants have paid up to $321 million of health care costs out-of-pocket Health Statistics Cont'd Job does not offer insurance
Unemployed and cannot pay for insurance
Financially unable to buy insurance
Undocumented immigrants do not qualify for Medicaid in some states
The Affordable Health Care Act excludes undocumented Mexicans Causes Urgent Care Centers do ask for ID, but do not refuse service if you do not have one. Base fees on a sliding scale
Non-profit organizations/ Churches in the community provide doctors and low cost prescriptions
EMSA – Emergency Medicaid Services for Aliens which covers the costs of emergency medical care
Depending on hospital or Clinic medical care is on a case-by-case basis. Resources Illegal immigrants are estimated to pay in about $7 billion per year into Social Security
The vast majority of these numbers are attributable to undocumented workers who will never claim their benefits
Illegal immigrants are finding it increasingly harder to find work, pay taxes and submit tax returns because of tighter immigration restrictions Taxes and Social Services New Mexico Center on Law and Poverty (2011, May) New Mexico Center on Law and Poverty (2011, May) Lopez, Mark (2009, October 7) Albert, Nora G, Ennis, Sharon R & Ríos-Vargas, Merarys (2011, May) Mexican immigrants are usually behind when it comes to academic scores
It is assumed that their parents don’t care about their children’s education
Language barrier can be another boundary which impedes on the student’s achievements
Immigrant students also usually struggle to adapt to the new educational settings Social Issue: Education Immigrant students also usually struggle to adapt to the new educational settings
One of the main stressors is conflicting cultural values between home and school, low socioeconomic status, isolation due to language, and fear and anxiety related to undocumented status
Mexican Americans have actively participated in fighting for equality in education
They remain marginalized within the United States society
Mexican immigrants are still experiencing segregated education Social Issue: Education Continued.. As the population of Mexican immigrants grows, so do dropout rate, academic struggles, and academic disengagement or failure
Persistently demonstrating higher dropout rates compared to European American and African American students
Mexican immigrant parents show low rates of home school involvement Social Issue: Education Cont'd Hispanics reported the lowest percentages overall of those with a high school diploma or equivalent and above.
61 percent had completed high school or higher and 13 percent had completed at least a bachelor’s degree.
Educational attainment of Mexican immigrants was lower than all other race, Hispanic origin, and nativity groups.
The percentage of Mexican immigrants who completed at least high school was 48 percent Social Issue: Education Cont'd Language
Contextual Stressors Lum D. (2011) Culturally Competent Practice. 318-319 Focuses on: Culturally Relevant Practice Life Long Process Problem solving levels of
Problem solving Skills Traditional Interview
Ethnographic interview Working with Mexican Immigrants Westby, C. et al, (2003). Use open-ended questions rather than dichotomous questions that trigger a yes or no response
Restate what the client says by repeating the client's exact words; do not paraphrase or interpret
Summarize the client or parent's statements and give them the opportunity to correct you if you have misinterpreted something they have said
Avoid asking multiple questions back-to-back and/or multipart questions
Avoid leading questions that tend to orient the person to a particular response
Avoid using "why" questions because such questions tend to sound judgmental and may increase the client's defensiveness Principals for Ethnographic Interviews Westby, C. et al, (2003). Rico Beans IMAGINE THE STAR IS YOUR WORLD
PUT YOUR NAME IN THE CENTER FRIENDS: The closest person to you
FAMILY: Someone you always go to for advice
HOUSING: Write down where you live and some adjectives of the space.
WORK: Your favorite place to work
ESTABLISHMENT: Write down your favorite place to hangout. Blanco, M. (2010). Immigration policy center: American immigration council. Retreived from http:www.immigrationpolicy.org
Dotson-Blake, K. P., Foster, V. A., & Gressard, C. F. (2009). Ending the silence of the Mexican immigrant voice in public education: Creating culturally inclusive family-school-community partnerships. Professional School Counseling, 12(3), 230-239.
Englekirk, Allan, and Marguerite Marin. “Mexican Americans.” Gale Encyclopedia of multicultural America. ED. Jeffrey Lehman. 2nd ed. Vol 2. Detroit: Gale, 2000. 1190-1222. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 11 Sept. 2012
Helgesen, C. (2009). Mexican immigrant challenges in the United States public school system: a case study of two schools. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.uwlax.edu/urc/jur-online/PDF/2009/helgesenMODLANG.pdf
(George P. Knight, et al(2010) J Early Adolesc. 30(3): 444–481. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904976/pdf/nihms-111926.pdf
Lum D. (2011) Culturally competent practice a framework for understanding diverse groups and justice issues: Human rights and social and economic justice
Lynch, E. W., Hanson, M. J. (2004). Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with children and their families (developing cross-cultural competence). Brooks Publishing company.
Marsiglia et al. (2011). Hopelessness, family stress & depression among Mexican-heritage mothers in the Southwet. Chicago: Lyceum Books
US Census Bureau.(2012). Retrieved from http:///www.census.gov
Westby, C., Burda, A., & Mehta, Z. (2003). Asking the Right Questions in the Right Ways: Strategies for Ethnographic Interviewing. Retrieved on May 15, 2007, from www.asha.org/about/publications/leader-online/archives/2003/q2/f030429b.htm. History Collins, Ben (2007) Sociocultural Concepts Cont'd Social Justice: This concept in social work practice can be operationalized as cultural competence, the ability to work with diverse populations in respectful and effective ways with clients' cultural context. (Lum, 2010)
Bias: prejudice in favor of/or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair. (Lum, 2010)
Discrimination: a behavioral response that is unfavorable to members of an ethnic, gender, sexual orientation, or related out group. Sociocultural Concepts Cont'd Oppression: occurs when one segment of the population keeps another segment from obtaining social economic political and related human right through institutional practices and social stratification (Lum, 2010)
Exploitation: this form of oppression occurs when the results of the labor of one social group are transferred to benefit another group. (Lum, 2010)
Marginalization: most dangerous form of oppression because it sets aside people that the labor system cannot and will not use as workers (Lum, 2010)
Powerlessness: involves persons who are powerless or who lack the authority to develop and exercise skills in work. (Census, 2010) (Lum, 2010)
(George P. Knight, et al, 2010)