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The Magna Carta (Collegio San Carlo)

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Amber Bowen

on 22 November 2012

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Transcript of The Magna Carta (Collegio San Carlo)

King Henry II Objectives After this module, you will be able to...
1. explain the sequence of significant events, dates, and figures during this time period.
2. use correct historical vocabulary including names, places, and key concepts.
3. articulate the new material in both a chronological and idealogical framework of periods.
4. analyze key question, concepts, causes and consequences of the Magna Carta.
5. identify and synthesize change and continuity within this period and across periods.
6. discuss with peers the key question and prepare a defense of the assigned position for the classroom presentation. Key Question Upon what should a legitimate authority be based? Started the Plantagenets
Became king in 1154
Half english (Mother's father was Henry I) and half French.
He was born in France but educated in England.
He later returned to France and conquered Normandy and Aquitaine. The Barons 1. Had power because of money.
2. During the time they were seizing castles and building illegal ones themselves.
3. Henry decreed that the stolen castles be returned to the throne and the illegal ones be destroyed. The Church 1. Previously the handmaiden of monarchy and now it's master.
2. Claimed authority over kings. Thomas Becket Henry, in an attempt to control the Church, appointed Thomas Becket as the Arch Bishop of Canterbury in 1162. But Becket was not so loyal to Henry and sided with the Church specifically on the issue of who gets to punish clergymen, the royal courts or the church courts. Henry threatened his life so Becket fled to France. He then returned with armed knights and went around England excommunicating bishops loyal to the King. Henry sent his own knights out, accused him of treachery towards his King, struck him on the back of the head, and he died in his own Cathedral in 1170. Consequences 1. Henry plunged into agony and closed himself in for 3 days. Perhaps for grief for the loss of his friend, perhaps for the shock of what he had done?
2. Europe was stunned. Letters from Henry's own family were sent to the Pope calling him “sacrilegious”, a “Judas” and “worse than Nero.”
3. The church thus used Beckett's ghost as a perfect excuse for rebelling against the King....which would later arise from no one other than his very own sons. Henry's Sons and their Inheritance Henry: England, Normandy

Richard: Duke of Aquitaine

Geoffrey: Brittany

John: “Lackland” In 1173 the sons started a rebellion aligned with the French and angry barons against their father. Henry's Achievements Economic: he developed and regulated the royal treasury and method for collecting taxes. Political: he expanded the royal courts and moved cases from the local courts to the jurisdiction of the royal courts. This expansion extended the king's power and created "common law" (law that was common to the whole kingdom), which replaced the local law codes that varied from place to place. Young Henry had been very attached to Thomas Becket, his former tutor, and may have held his father responsible for Becket's death. The barons were unhappy with Henry's rule and saw and opportunity to recover traditional powers and influence by allying themselves with his sons. Even Eleanor, Henry's wife, joined the rebellion. In 1189, Henry died a broken man at age 56. Richard the Lionheart Cared more about France than England.
Did not speak English
Only spent six months of his ten year reign in England.
He used England to fund his adventures in the Holy Land. Bad King John While away on crusade, John took over the rule of England. By 1204 he lost much of his territory to Phillip Augustus. In order to recover face, John decided to strike at the power of the Church. However, he encountered Innocent III who not only excommunicated John in 1209 but invited Philip Augustus to seize the throne. He wanted to choose who would be the next Archbishop of Caterbury but the Church claimed that right. Forced to decide between his life and his pride, he agreed to sign an agreement that the Pope has ultimate authority over him. The Barons were horrified and would have no more of John..... 15:00 - 19:37 June 15, 1215 The Barons met John in a field and forced him to sign the Magna Carta, which is one of the oldest documents supporting challenges against arbitrary government and the divine right of kings. It defines certain rights that governments are required to honor at all times. The document placed John under the law as gave provision for the Barons to use force if John got out of line. John signed the document but later turned to Innocent III to have it annulled. The Barons were outraged and turned to direct war. No longer a question of with straining John. Now they needed to overthrow him. They turned to the enemy, France, and asked Louis, the son of the Phillip Augustus to overtake the throne. He invaded and by 1216 had seized much of south England, including London. This was known as the First Baron's War. On October 18, 1216 John died. Henry III Now that John was out of the way, the idea of a French succession became less appealing and they decided to crown Henry, who was 9 years old, 10 days after his father’s death. To gain approval by the people, they used propaganda rather than a military flex of authority. They sent out a letter saying that, because of his youth, he had no part in the sins of his father. Because of Henry's youth William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, was appointed regent to govern on his behalf. Realising the urgent need to establish baronial support for the young king, William Marshal swiftly issued two revisions of Magna Carta in 1216 and 1217. The Barons were furious and began to fear he was just like his father and Simon De Montfort, who happened to be Henry's brother-in-law, became leader of those who wanted to reassert Magna Carta and force the king to surrender more power to the baronial council. The Provisions of Oxford placed the majority of the power in the hands of 15 Barons who were checked by a Parliament that met 3 times per year. Then, Henry accepted the invitation from Pope Innocent IV that Henry's son Edward become King of Sicily. In exchange for the kingship, Henry promised to support the papacy in its struggle against the Hohenstauffen dynasty. That support came in the form of huge grants of money, which strained the English treasury to the breaking point. The 'Mad Parliament' of 1258 called vociferously for Henry to be accountable for his actions. The document laying out the grievances, and suggestions for redress, were the Provisions of Oxford. Ultimately, the struggle for control of the government polarized the nobility into those who supported the king and those who supported Simon de Montfort. The struggle ultimately led to the outbreak of the Baron's War. Henry tried to back out of the Provisions, leading to civil war in 1264. This was known as the Second Barons' War. Simon captured Henry in 1265, however, Simon was more interested in reforms than he was in personal power. He summoned a "Parliament" (from the French "parler", to talk). Simon's Parliament drew two knights from each shire and two burgesses from each borough. This was the first summoning of townsmen in Parliamentary history. It was also a sign of the growing wealth and influence of the merchant classes.
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