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Transcript of Crusades
"Antisemitism in History: World War I." Antisemitism in History: World War I. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2013.
• "Black Death." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/black-death>.
• "Bulls, Papal." Bulls, Papal. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0004_0_03728.html>.
• "Crusades." Crusades. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0005_0_04737.html>.
• "Internet History Sourcebooks Project." Internet History Sourcebooks Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/1348-jewsblackdeath.asp>.
• "Jewish History." Jewish History. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://www.jewishhistory.org/the-first-crusade/>.
Black Plague and Third Crusade
Reconquer Holy Land from Saladin
Muslim leader and Sultan of Egypt
Suffered in war against Saladin
Didn't feel content with results
Didn't win back Jerusalem
King Louis IX of France expelled all Jews from living in his domain
Ended Jewish life in France for many centuries
The First Crusade
25,000 Jews killed
Rhine and Danube were attacked greatly
almost exclusively French
defeated the Turks and Muslims
conquered Jerusalem on July 4, 1099.
The Second Crusade
How the Crusades Started:
Split in Christian Church
The Greek Orthodox Church was threatened by the Muslims.
Crusader Mentality: Christianity must displace Islam/Judaism, even if through violence.
Christian army under the command of the Pope.
The Pope said “Anyone who goes on the Crusades is granted forgiveness for his sins.”
20 million people dead
Many Jews weren't as affected because they lived in ghettos
Yersinia pestis bacterium
A ship arrived in Europe by sea in October 1347
Muslims reclaimed Edessa in 1144
caused the Second Crusade
King Louis VII of France and King Conrad III of Germany combined forces
Muslims were defeated by Crusader army of 50,000
Effects of Plague
Jews in the Second Crusade
The Effects of the Crusades
on the Jews of Europe
• "Jewish Persecution: The Plague and the Holocaust." Comparing the Black Plague and the Jewish Holocaust. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw14jewsblamed.htm>.
• "JewishEncyclopedia.com." CALIXTUS II. (GUIDO OF BURGUNDY) -. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/3930-calixtus-ii-guido-of-burgundy>.
• "Medieval Concepts of the Past Pp. I-xi." Medieval Concepts of the Past. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://ebooks.cambridge.org/chapter.jsf?bid=CBO9781139052320>.
• "Plague." National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-diseases/plague-article/>.
• "Pogroms of 1096." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Sept. 2013. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pogroms_of_1096>.
• "What Do the Crusades and the Holocaust Have in Common?" Yahoo Contributor Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. <http://voices.yahoo.com/what-crusades-holocaust-common-41051.html>.
"They (the Western powers) launched the myth of the Holocaust. They lied, they put on a show and then they support the Jews." -Iranian President Ahmadinejad at the United Nations General Assembly
In the Holocaust, they blamed the Jews for
World World I/The Great Depression
In the Crusades, they blamed the Jews for
The Crucifixion of Jesus
Violent Acts of Mass Murder
May 27, 1096 1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mayence to escape Count Emico, who tried to forcibly convert them.
Jews in hiding would convert by changing their name and to Christianity and rarely talk about their life
People justified actions
Jews can poison again
Fear economic state, later the Nazis
People were very ignorant and not informed
Sanitation was lacking
German economy was low
Didn't know a lot about sanitation or economy
Needed to blame someone
Discriminating/Stereotyping certain groups of people
Effect of 911
In and outside our country, anyone who looks "Arab" or looked Muslim could be considered suspicious or have hate crimes directed towards them
Hold work place back with days off because of kids
Blame for crime
Rhineland Massacre Relation to Holocaust
In 1923, Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement.
The Bishop of Mainz formed an organization to help Jews escape from Germany.
Mainz was captured in 1945 by Germany.
France owned Mainz from 1945-1949.
After French forces withdrawal, The United States Army took over military bases.
1146 Cistercian monk, Radulph's attacks on Rhineland
"Those who crucified Jesus"
Bernard of Clairvaux (spiritual leader) - saved Jews
sought safety in castles
Bohemia fights - lost 150 Jews
England - Jews were safe
Jews were restricted from settling in Jerusalem
Jerusalem fell to Saladin in 1187- hit Jews hard
again sought safety by hiding
became dependent on favors and bishops protection
Emperor Frederick (1182)- protected them
Divine punishment and overcome by winning God's forgiveness
Thousands of Jews were massacred in 1348 and 1349
Arrested and tortured to confess
Authorities overthrown and became complete war against Jews
Jewish centers were burned down
February 1349, 2,000 jews were killed in Strasbourg
Same year, Mainz and Cologne (jewish communities) were exterminated
"The seed of peace, not dragon's teeth"
Regain German territory lost Versailles Treaty of 1919
In Third Crusade, wanted to regain territory they lost to Saladin of the Holy Land
Religious acceptance and discrimination