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AMERICA IN TRANSITION
Transcript of AMERICA IN TRANSITION
American Expansion, Industry and Immigration at the turn of the Century
*Identify the major characteristics that define a historical era
*Identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics
*Analyze the effects of landmark U.S. Supreme Court decisions such as Plessy v. Ferguson
*Analyze political issues such as Indian policies
*Analyze economic issues such as the growth of railroads
*Understand the effects of governmental actions on individuals, industries, and communities
*Describe how the economic impact of the Transcontinental railroad and the Homestead Act contributed to the close of the frontier in the late 19th century
*Discuss the Americanization movement to assimilate American Indians into American culture
It was a whole race trying to go to school. Few were too young, and none too old, to make the attempt to learn. As fast as any kind of teachers could be secured, not only were day-schools filled, but night-schools as well. The great ambition of the older people was to try to learn to read the Bible before they died.
—Booker T. Washington, Up from Slavery: An Autobiography, 1901
Charleston; April, 1865
The task of bringing together the nation and rebuilding the South marked the beginning of “Reconstruction”.
13: Freed Slaves
14: Made Blacks Citizens
15: Gave Black MEN the right to vote
How did we get here?
The Reconstruction Era lasted from [approximately] 1865-1877
“Black Codes” were often used in the South to continue to restrict the freedom and opportunities of Black Americans
Segregation – Plessy v. Ferguson
*Jim Crow Laws
*Sharecropping & Tenant Farming
*Literacy Tests & Poll Taxes
The “Jim Crow” South
Identify the major characteristics of:
Expansionism U.S. leading in industry
The Gilded Age [America in Transition]
Poor working conditions and low pay Labor Unions & better working conditions
Political Corruption & Political “machines”
A need for change (mid 1800s)
Ranchers & Cowboys
Native American children were “Americanized”, sometimes taken away from their homes (traditional Native American culture) and raised in boarding schools.
*There was a population explosion in the West.
*There was a need for better
and transportation, especially through the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains.
*Working the railroad was strenuous and dangerous.
*4/5 of the labor force were Chinese workers who were paid lower wages than white workers and were targets of racism.
America’s First Major Industry: The Railroad
Economic Issues of Railroads…
The Interstate Commerce Act (1887): Ruled that only Congress had the power to regulate interstate commerce which prohibited unfair practices by railroads, such as charging higher rates for shorter routes
The Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): The first federal law to restrict immigration to the U.S. and banned the immigration of Chinese workers and residents for employment purposes
The Government Takes Action!
Analyze economic issues such as the battle industry boom
Analyze economic issues such as farm issues
Evaluate the impact of third parties including the Populist Party
Explain how specific needs result in scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture.
Analyze economic issues such as industrialization.
N tes #2
Cattle industry boomed in the late 1800s, as the frontier closed, the culture and influence of Plains American Indians declined
Increased demand for beef in American cities.
New urban populations and increased foreign competition caused American farmers to produce more food – overproduction.
Farmers had to ship their crops to market and were forced to pay whatever railroads charged – high costs.
Farmers had to borrow money to buy new machinery – banks charged high interest rates – farmer indebtedness.
Farmers were subject to drought, insect invasions, and floods – natural disasters.
The Agrarian Movement (1870-1900)
The McCormick reaper was a boon to wheat farmers; the first model could do the work of three men. As Cyrus McCormick perfected and improved the capabilities of the new implement, more land was put into production.
Milk was first pasteurized in the 1800s (partial sterilization to remove microorganisms)
Refrigerated rail cars allowed butchered meat to ship transcontinental.
The original purpose of the Grange Movement was to serve as a social club for farmers to help them overcome rural isolation and to spread information.
Began urging economic and political reforms
The Grange helped politically in the Interstate Commerce Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission
The Grange Movement
In 1896, the Democratic Party nominated William Jennings Bryan for President, but narrowly lost to William McKinley.
A new national political party representing the “common man” – farmers, industrial works, and miners.
Populism was the movement to increase farmers’ political power and to work for legislation in their interest.
The Populist Party (1891-1896)
In 1896, the Democratic Party held its National Convention to pick their Presidential candidate. William Jennings Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech was so powerful that he won the nomination:
“My friends, the question we are to decide is: upon which side will the Democratic Party fight; upon the side of ‘the idle holders of idle capital’ or upon the side of ‘the struggling masses’? That question the party must answer. You tell us that the great cities are in favor of the gold standard; we reply that the great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies. Burn down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic. But destroy our farms and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country.”
Which groups did Bryan appeal to in his speech to the Democratic Convention?
How did he try to show that farmers were superior?
William Jennings Bryan Cross of Gold Speech- Read the 2 excerpts & Respond to the questions
Third parties, like the Populist Party, have an impact on the political process
Many of their proposals have passed into law!
Graduated Income Tax – 16th amendment
Direct election of Senators – 17th amendment
Enacting of state laws by voters themselves through initiatives and referendums, and recall
From 1865 to 1905 America entered a second industrial revolution emerging as a leading industrial power in the world exceeded their competitors of Great Britain, Germany, & France.
Industries and business grew with technological innovations.
Otis, passenger elevator up instead of out
In the 1850s Sewing Machines were popular in the garment industry
902, Glider, Kitty Hawk
Bell on the telephone in New York, 1892
Large labor force made up of immigrants.
Advanced transportation networks & raw materials.
Businesses benefitted from government subsidies, protective tariffs, & laissez-faire (hands off of business) approach. Europeans recognized them as a good investment.
Entrepreneurs emerged as 440,000 new patents creating more labor saving techniques.
Why was the Second Industrial Revolution So Successful?
*Describe the changing relationship between the federal government and private business, including the costs and benefits of laissez-faire, and anti-trust acts.
*Analyze economic issues such as the free enterprise system.
*Evaluate the contributions of significant political and social leaders in the U.S. such as Andrew Carnegie.
*Analyze economic issues such as the rise of entrepreneurship.
*Analyze economic issues such as the pros and cons of big business.
A new market required a system of mass production to supply more products faster.
This impacted factories because workers did not need to be “skilled” or crafted.
Labor was plentiful with the influx of immigrants
However, low capital (money) led to corporations.
“By 1882, Standard Oil had become a monopoly, a company that completely dominates a particular industry. It controlled 90% of the nation’s oil production. With its competitors out of the way, Standard Oil could raise its prices and reap great profits.”
When corporations are forced to compete, it’s good for the consumer! – Laissez Faire
We live in a “free enterprise system” where individuals are free to produce and sell whatever they wish and are free to buy and use whatever they can afford.
Decisions are influenced solely by the pressures of competition, supply, and demand.
However, if there’s no competition, prices can be set to benefit the corporations – Social Darwinism.
Horizontal Integration – joining as many firms with the same industry as possible
Vertical Integration – Taking control of each step of production
Sherman Antitrust Act – Outlawed trusts, monopolies, and other forms of business that restrict trade.
Through large scale production, entrepreneurs like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller lowered the prices of good, making them more affordable and improving their quality.
Robber Barons or Captains of Industry?
Carnegie was a steel and railroad tycoon of late 19th century.
Authored “The Gospel of Wealth” which promoted the ideas of philanthropic actions such as building libraries and schools
During his lifetime, he gave over $350 million
While industrialists amassed great fortunes, society was tainted by political corruption and the gap between the rich and the poor grew.
The business tycoons (or Founding Fathers of our economy) of the Gilded Age; Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, Cornelius Vanderbilt, & J. P. Morgan lived at a moment of riotous growth — & real violence — establishing America as the richest, most inventive, and most productive country on the planet.
Those who worked in their mills noted "a widespread feeling of unrest and brooding revolution." Violent strikes and riots wracked the nation through the turn of the century as if they wanted a carnival revenge.
For immediate relief, the urban poor often turned to political machines providing useful services but often stealing from their pockets.
*Large businesses are more efficient, leading to lower prices.
*Large amount of workers.
They can produce goods in large quantities.
*They can have the resources to support expensive research and invent new items.
*They have unfair competition.
*They sometimes exploited workers.
*They are less concerned with where they do business and pollute the area.
*They have unfair influence over government policies affecting them.
The Gilded Age 1878-1889(Gold on the outside, but not on the inside)
*While industrialists amassed great fortunes, society was tainted by political corruption and the gap between the rich and the poor grew.
*The business tycoons (or Founding Fathers of our economy) of the Gilded Age; Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, Cornelius Vanderbilt, & J. P. Morgan lived at a moment of riotous growth — & real violence — establishing America as the richest, most inventive, and most productive country on the planet.
*Those who worked in their mills noted "a widespread feeling of unrest and brooding revolution." Violent strikes and riots wracked the nation through the turn of the century as if they wanted a carnival revenge.
*For immediate relief, the urban poor often turned to political machines providing useful services but often stealing from their pockets.
Notes # 4
*Analyze social issues affecting women, minorities, children, immigrants, urbanization, and philanthropy of industrialists.
*Analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from legal and illegal immigration to the United States.
*Identify the effects of population growth and distribution on the physical environment.
*Describe the optimism of the many immigrants who sought a better life in America.
*Discuss the Americanization movement to assimilate immigrants into American culture
The Immigration Process
*The journey to America was often difficult, immigrant passengers traveled in steerage (a cramped, poorly ventilated area below decks).
*Millions of immigrants were processed through Ellis Island in New York or Angel Island in San Francisco.
*Immigrants were interviewed and inspected, any immigrant with serious mental or physical health problems were deported, but most passed inspection.
*From 1891 to 1910, 12 million immigrants came to the US to escape poverty or persecution; many hoped to make money and return home and buy land.
Why Europeans Immigrated to the US
Large populations of immigrants caused urban growth in ports of entry and cities with heavy industry.
High urbanization left cities overcrowded and congested.
Problems created by growing cities lead to inadequate public services, transportation issues, overcrowding, and racial and social tensions
Life of the Poor
Life of the Poor
Life for those in poverty in the late 1800’s usually was marked by crowded living conditions, long hours and poor sanitation.
Most were forced to live in rundown, poorly built apartment buildings called tenements, 4-6 stories usually housing four families on each floor.
Tenements were known for poor sanitation, terrible smell and a lack of privacy and safety, different immigrant groups created distinct ethnic neighborhoods where each group could maintain its own language, culture, church or temple, and social club.
Urbanization occurred around industrial centers.
Overcrowding increased as workers populated cities in search of jobs.
Urban pollution and sanitation problems worsened
Air pollution became an urban problem.
Shifting patterns of immigration increases nativism, Americanism, and racial tensions.
The New Working Class
In the Gilded Age a class system emerged based on wealth and power.
In the late 1800’s thousands of African Americans moved north in search of jobs, but even in the north black workers were given low paying, dangerous jobs – The Great Migration.
The number of American female workers doubled between the years 1870-1890 and number of laborers under the age of 16 also doubled in this time.
Throughout the 1800s child labor became a large part of the work force employing children as young as 6-8 working in coal mine and cotton fields under extreme conditions. Few laws passed to protect them
Labor Begins to Organize
In the late 1800’s , labor unions began to fight for shorter hours, better working conditions, & higher wages for the American worker.
Must of union’s powers came from the threat of a strike, simply refuse to work until demands met. Many businesses pressured workers to sign “yellow dog contracts,” pledging not to join a union or blacklisting those suspected of being a member.
Started as a cigar maker & local union leader in NYC. Founded American Federation of Labor for 40 years. Favored cooperation over strikes & resisted socialist efforts into the AFL
Marry Harris “Mother” Jones
Roamed the country helping coal miners, textile workers form unions. Known as a “hell-raiser” she was considered one of the most dangerous women in America.
Eugene V Deb
Worked as a locomotive fireman. Later founded American Railway Union, & Industrial Workers World. Father of the Socialist Party. Ran for president while in prison.
National Labor Unions: Common Goal, Different Strategies
Labor leaders battled with company owners and managers for reducing competition, paying lower wages and perpetuating unsafe working conditions for their employees
Factory laborers formed and joined unions in order to take part in collective bargaining with employers
Many labor unions went on strike in the 1880s
The “Great Strikes,” Homestead, Pullman, and Haymarket Riot were all significant labor disputes
Growth of Labor Unions
Some patriotic organizations pushed for Americanization of immigrants, pushing American values, history, and citizenship.
Jane Addams Hull House lead many educated young women on a mission to help the poor and later to press for women’s suffrage.
Many middle class women joined Protestant churches to apply Christian principles to address the problem of poverty and churches offered counseling, job training, libraries and other social services.
By 1900, most states had passes Compulsory Education Laws which required parents to send children to school; by 1900, 72% of American children were in school.
A more educated public created a demand for books and newspapers written for the average American.
Urban Reforms & Social Gospel Movement
Growth of Labor Unions
*In 1886, Haymarket Affair started when nonunion workers were brought to replace striking workers. Anarchist called for a meeting at Haymarket Square, bombing the crowd killing several police, and 4 protestors.
*1884, The Pullman Strike, supported management against striking workers.
The Pullman Company made fancy railcars and the entire town made up of all the workers who worked for the company (food, school,etc). During an economic depression the company cut wages. Workers reacted by linking non-working Pullman Cars to the US mail cars which was a federal offense. Federal troops sent in to stop the strike.
Strikes Erupt Nationwide
Labor leaders battled with company owners and managers for reducing competition, paying lower wages and perpetuating unsafe working conditions for their employees.
Factory laborers formed and joined unions in order to take part in collective bargaining with employers.
Many labor unions went on strike in the 1880s
The “Great Strikes,” Homestead, Pullman, and Haymarket Riot were all significant labor disputes
Cultures Clash on the Great Plains
*Indian Removal Act (1830): forced tribes living east of the Mississippi River to move west to Oklahoma Territory on the Great Plains
*Assimilation furthered with the Dawes Act of 1887: A tribe no longer owned land – individuals were given land.
*(The Homestead Act: provided tracts of land called homesteads to settlers in the West – 160 acres of public land for a small fee to anyone who agreed to work the land and live on it for five years
Land Rush Scene Far & Away
Industrialization: Industries relied on railroads for shipping Increased industrialization
Ranching, farming, and mining were dependent
EXPANSIONISM: Expanded western settlement and growth.
Innovations: Enabled rapid growth (i.e. steal & communication)
The Hull House
Cattle drives and expansion of railroads provided access of beef to urbanized areas
Large populations of immigrants provided industrialists with more labor.
As the country was rebuilding after the Civil War, political machines developed political organizations based on party patronage (spoils system).
At the top of this corrupt scheme was the political boss who controlled the machine and it’s politicians. William “Boss” Tweed of New York’s Tammany Hall cheated the city as much as $200 million.
Ward bosses and precinct captains offered the residents (immigrants) assistance in exchange for votes (police, fire, sanitation, schools, funeral) at election time, providing benefits (welfare) that most state or local governments did not provide.