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Meteorology

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Kurt Wilkins

on 17 May 2011

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Transcript of Meteorology

What is Meteorology? Meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the natural sciences that deals with the Earth’s atmosphere & its related phenomena. Meteorology has to do with weather. These are four types of things that cause weather.
Temperature, Air Pressure, Wind, Moisture are
all causes. 1. Earth’s Atmosphere is 79% Nitrogen, 20% Oxygen, 1% Everything Else.

-Variable Components of it are
Water Vapor, Aerosols--suspended
solid & liquid particles in the
atmosphere. The Ozone--(O3)
absorbs harmful UV radiation &
damaged by CFC’s The three atmospheric layers are troposphere(where
we live), stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. How the ssun heats the earth. A unequal Heating of the Earth results in two types of heating. Direct Sunlight Energy (comes at a 90º angle) causes more HEAT. It occurs most often at the equator. Indirect Sunlight Energy (comes in at an angle less than 90º) doesn’t produce as much heat. Heat transfer is how light is turned into warmth.
Sun gives off light energy because of nuclear fusion. (Fusing of 2 hydrogen atoms into a single helium atom)
Atmosphere absorbs most of the radiation.
Ground absorbs the rest. 3. Convection is the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid. This results in warm air rising, cold air sinking. “Greenhouse Effect”-- CO2 collects in the atmosphere & traps heat energy at the surface. (CO2 is 0.036%) Air pressure
A. Air has mass, so its weight (gravity) pushes down on the earth causing pressure.
B. Movement of Air
1. Warm air expands, making it less dense so it rises causing LOW pressure. Warm air holds more moisture. To measure pressure they use something called a Barometer (Mercury or Aneroid) measures the change in air pressure in either millibars or millimeters/inches of mercury. Wind is the movement of air from one place to another.
Air moves from an HIGH pressure to LOW pressure. Global Winds are created by the unequal heating of the Earth’s surface, difference in air pressure& the Earth’s rotation.
Coriolis Effect--due to the Earth’s rotation, moving objects such as air and water will shift in a certain direction. Jet Stream

A narrow stream of high pressure wind found in the lower stratosphere.



Pushes large air masses across the globe. Measuring Wind
1. Wind Speed--Anemometer
2. Wind Direction--Wind Vane
Measured in mi/hr, km/hr,
and knots. Humidity

1. The measure of the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. Moisture Specific Humidity--measure of the actual mass of water vapor in a given mass of air.






Relative Humidity--ratio/percentage of the actual amount of water vapor in a given mass of air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor that air can hold at a given temperature. Psychrometer--a type of hygrometer that has a wet bulb thermometer & a dry bulb thermometer






Dew Point Temperature--the temperature to which air has to be cooled in order to be completely saturated (filled)
with water. Clouds:
Suspended droplets of water that collect on aerosols.
Formation of clouds depend on the amount of moisture & aerosols in the air, the air temperature, & the stability of the air. Types of clouds Cirrus – high clouds that are thin & wispy. Made of ice crystals.
2. Stratus – low level clouds that have a layered look.
3.Cumulus – large, fluffy clouds of vertical development.
4. The prefix alto- is added to the name of clouds formed in the middle cloud layer. 1. Rain is the basic forom of percipitation.
2. Hailstones form in cumulonimbus clouds
Winds that are strong carry rain drops above the
freezing line.
Rain drops freeze into ice pellets & fall.
Stronger the wind, the larger the hailstone.
3.Sleet is freezing rain freezes into an ice pellet as
it falls through a pocket of freezing air.
4. Freezing Rain is when rain falls to the ground
and freezes on contact with the surface.
5. Snow is when cloud droplets freeze in the
clouds and stick together forming flakes. Percepitation Air mases are large body of air that are the same throughout. The types are named based on where the air formed, its temperature, and its humidity.
Types
Maritime Polar is a form that forms over the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It bring COLD, MOIST air with it.
Maritime Tropical is a form that forms near the equator. It brings WARM, MOIST air with it.
If it comes in contact with cooler air from the North, storms will form.
Maritime Polar is a form when it forms over the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This brings COLD, MOIST air
Maritime Tropical is a form near the equator. It brings WARM, MOIST air. If it comes in contact with cooler air from the North, storms will form. Types of fronts.
Is a boundary where two air masses collide.
A front is named for the aggressive air mass.

Cold air meets and replaces a mass of warm air resulting in:
Fast in speed.
Form cumulus clouds.
Narrow frontal zone
Short, severe weather

Warm air mass overtakes and moves over a cold air masses.
Slow moving
Forms stratus clouds
Wide frontal zone
Long periods of drizzle
Overcast skies

Dry air invades moist air.
Fast moving
Narrow frontal zone
Forms cumulus clouds
Severe weather in most cases

Stationary Front that neither air mass moves.
Means that their are no bad weather.
Occluded Front is a cold front catches up with a warm front and overtakes it.
Weather can be variable and the conditions can change. Servere Weather is weather that can be considered life threatening and can cause damage to buildings
Includes thunderstorms, lightning, tornadoes, flooding, hurricanes, etc.
Watches and warnings help warn people before something happens.
1.Watches – a watch is issued when the conditions for a certain type of severe weather are possible, but not necessarily occurring at the moment.
2. Warnings – a warning is issued in a specific area where a type of severe weather is occurring at that given moment.

Thunderstorms

Fast moving rainstorms that can produce strong winds, hail, heavy rainfall, lightning & tornadoes.

1. Lightning – static electricity caused by the separation of electrical charges by the collisions of rain drops & strong winds. The positive & negative charges seek each other out. When they connect, an electrical discharge occurs creating a lightning bolt.

2. Thunder – the heat generated by the lightning bolt superheats the surrounding air causing it to expand so rapidly that it causes a sonic boom. Tornadoes - Tornadoes are funnels of high speed circulating winds that touch down.
They have high winds & updrafts collide creating a circulating low pressure. The cloud begins to lower below the cloud base (wall cloud.)The low pressure extends to the ground picking up dust & debris forming a tornado. Hurricanes-
These are tropical cyclone that have low pressure centers (eye) with several rotating thunderstorms & strong winds around it. Starts as tropical depressions over warm water in the oceans. Storm builds strength as it travels over the warm water.

Floods-
Kill more people in the U.S. than any other type of severe weather.It is caused by too much rain over an extended period of time. It causes lakes, streams, rivers, etc. to overflow -All information credit goes to Mr.Porter
-All images are courtesy of google images.
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