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1. International development
Transcript of 1. International development
Per capita GNI = average income
Human Development Index
Income + Life expectancy + Literacy rate
1. `Progress' is linked to the rise of capitalism
2. `Development' idea emerges after WWII
`Our country must develop, if we do not develop we will be bullied. Development is the only hard truth.’
What is development?
Progress: `good change'
Material sufficiency and social stability
Material increase and social dynamism
`Our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its borders. There is therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce.’
The `Great Divergence'
The birth of `development'
Truman's Point Four programme, 1949
`... we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and skill to relieve suffering of these people. '
Development as `catch-up'
Development as modernization
Development as an international process
3. International divergence and decolonization
4. Development is uneven & combined
Macartney expedition to China, 1792