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TERUEL, A GLOBAL MODEL FOR TRUFFLE CULTIVATION: ORIGINS, PRESENT AND FUTURE
Transcript of TERUEL, A GLOBAL MODEL FOR TRUFFLE CULTIVATION: ORIGINS, PRESENT AND FUTURE
1. - Mount closes. Lack of management .
2. - Changes in agriculture.
3. - Proliferation of wild boar populations .
4.- The climate factor .
5. - Overuse of the truffle .
As a result the natural inoculum in the soil is declining.
Estrada, Juan Mª
Perales Vicente, Julio
TERUEL, A GLOBAL MODEL FOR TRUFFLE CULTIVATION:
ORIGINS, PRESENT AND FUTURE
14,000 KM2 (PONER EXACTO)
8000 KM2 APTOS PARA LA RECOLECCIÓN
4000 KM2 POTENCIAL DE CULTIVO DE TRUFA NEGRA
TRES ZONAS DESTACAN :
ASOCIACIÓN DE RECOLECTORES Y CULTIVADORES DE TRUFA DE LA PROVINCIA DE TERUEL
Geology and soil types. climatology
Vegetation and species of truffles
The start of the truffle .
Favorable conditions in the area. Limitations
• Geographic location
• Geology and soil types
• Vegetation and species of truffles
• Historical Background
• The start of the truffle
• Conditions in the area
• Current Situation
• Benefits of Truffle
The climate is greatly influenced by the altitude of the area , the relief and the relative proximity of the Mediterranean.
Rainfall of 400 mm . and 700 mm. annually with a great irregularity year , very dry years are combined with other wet .
Rainfall is concentrated in spring and autumn .
The summers are short and cool and winter snowfall is common with temperatures that can drop to -15 ° C or -20 ° C.
The annual average temperature stands at around 7-9 ° C.
Bookmark the strong influence of the wind in the region.
It could be defined as a Mediterranean mountain climate , which in some areas has some characteristics of a continental climate.
Wild truffles find area T. melanosporum , T. aestivum , T. mesentericum , T.macrosporum , T. rufum , T. albidum , T. malenzonii and other species present in France and Italy.
No Tuber magnatum.
Region Gúdar Javalambre :
2351 km2 extension
population of just under 8,000.
Area economy based on:
Cereal. ( 1,500 kg / ha / year)
Extensive livestock , usually sheep .
These limitations , together with the presence of wild truffle , were one of the reasons behind the development of the truffle in the area. People had a lot to gain and little to lose.
Golden age of the wild truffle
It´s talking about full bags of truffles every week
A truffle hunter gathered of 20-30 kg/per day in a good season
Prices. In the 1.963/64 season (J. F. Kennedy murder year) truffle reached the 2,000 ptas/kg (12€).
An apartmenten in the city of Zaragoza, capital of the region of Aragón and one of the most populated cities of Spain, cost about 200,000 ptas (1,200€).
The price of a car, in particular SEAT 600 , was, in those days, about 65,000 ptas (390€), it means 32,5 kg of truffle or two days of work.
The first truffle market in the province of Teruel , 1.962/63 season takes place in a bar Rubielos Station Mora (Venta del Aire) called "Casa Tia Maria ".
It moved to its current location in Amparín House in Mora Station .
This market is currently in the late evening , every Saturday of the season, ie from November 15 to March 15 .
-In the golden age of the truffle, a very good year ( season 1.974/75 ) , in a week, was in the market 8/9 tons of Tuber melanosporum . There were about 30 buyers from all over Spain .
Weekly between 700 kg and 1,000 kg of black truffle.
4,000 hectares in the Shire Gúdar Javalamabre
Home of the decline of wild production getting itself to pay to search 50,000 pesetas(300 € )
The decline of wild Truffle
First production nurseries mycorrhizal plant in Spain
Truffle Workshop on Sarrión .
Grants truffle DPT (Provincial Government of Teruel).
Travel to France
Grants truffle via reforestation of agricultural land :
For planting 1300-1800 € / ha
Maintenance of 150-300 € / year for 5 years.
Agricultural income loss of 150-300 € / ha . / Year for 10 - 15years
. DPT Convention with mycorrhizal plant nursery producers .
3 (year 1995 ) to 12 (year 2012 ) nurseries.
Organisation of the sector in Spain and integration in the GETT
Benefits of Truffle
Factors conducive to the cultivation of T. melanosporum :
1 - Soil very favorable.
2 - Large potential inoculum in the soil. (T. melanosporum )
3 - The climate minimizes the presence of other ectomycorrhizal fungi . Little competition of weeds in young plantations.
April . - Middle very open . Endomicorrízicas presence of plants .
Limiting factors :
Social Irrigation Plan . Economic impact.
Current Situation . Benefits of Truffle.
The truffle is being a real dynamic engine of the local economy .
In the past 20 years have created :
About 10 mycorrhizal plant nurseries , irrigation companies , farm fencing , labor required for maintenance of plantations , people who are dedicated to teaching and selling dogs for truffle collection ; canneries and a rebound effect that impact on tourism in the area such as the agri-tourism and gastronomy.
Trade Fair of truffles , Fitruf :
Attendance over 20,000 visitors.
The truffle , promotes reforestation with native plants , helps fight climate change, is a growing ecological as no pesticides are used, helps to keep people in deprived areas , and while we talk about irrigation, water consumption is very moderate compared with other agricultural crops and combines perfectly with the rural tourism booming as of late .
Truffle Association of the province of Teruel ( ATRUTER ), created in 1997.
Currently has over 500 members.
As the truffle doesn’t know about flags or countries ATRUTER’s vocation is working with industry associations worldwide .
As you can tell the future of the truffle in our area is very promising , just hope to continue the path already started and continue to contribute to the world market a truffle Teruel that is beginning to be recognized for its outstanding quality and aroma.
Thank you very much for your attention
4.000 hectares planted that increases from year to year
Nowadays, the province of Teruel produce between the 80% to 90% of the spanish black truffle, that representes a very important percentage of the global Tuber Melanosporum production
PROVINCE OF TERUEL
8,000 km2 suitable to the truffle recolection
4,000 km2 with good possibilities to the truffle cultivation
Three zones stand out:
Seekers of Catalonia ( Centelles area ) and Huesca (municipality of Graus ) discover the area