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Slavery in America

The Black Codes, The Missouri Compromise, The Fugitive Slave Acts, The Kansas-Nebraska Act, The Mason-Dixon Line
by

Jasmine Huang

on 1 June 2015

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Transcript of Slavery in America

What was it?
A series of acts and laws set in 1856 and 1866 by the Southern states of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Virginia, Florida, Tennessee, and North Carolina.

The Southerners were frightened that the freed slaves would seek revenge and feared for their families and their homes. They began passing laws to restrict the ex-slave's freedom. The Black Codes were created to limit the freedom of ex-slaves and included new employment laws, requirements to pay taxes and strict Vagrancy Laws with requirements for travel passes. Additionally, the Black Codes were established to create a cheap labour force for Southern farm owners.

Main restrictions of ex-slaves:
• Permission to travel
• Segregation
• Different laws and punishments
• Limited choice in employment
and strict labour contracts
• Permission required from
employers to sell farm produce
• Banned from weapons
• Preventing Freedmen to vote or
serve on juries

The Black Codes
The Fugitive Slave Acts
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
What was it?
The Kansas-Nebraska Act was a law written by Stephen A. Douglas and passed by Congress on May 30, 1854 that provided for the formation of two new territories. One of these he named Kansas and the other territory was named Nebraska. The Kansas-Nebraska Act was another compromise that contradicted the 1820 Missouri compromise and allowed settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery.

The purpose of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was to provide another compromise to encourage representatives of the southern states in Congress to look favourably on the act. To gain southern support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Stephen A. Douglas therefore proposed Kansas as a southern state.

Effect of the Kansas-Nebraska Act:
• The anti-slavery leaders in the North
were furious
• Southern settlers flooded the Kansas
territory to claim lands and voted
for the expansion of slavery
• Violence burst in Kansas between
anti-slavery and pro-slavery combatants
reaching a state of low intensity civil war
known as 'Bleeding Kansas'

The Missouri Compromise
By: Jasmine Huang
Slavery in America
The Mason-Dixon Line
What was it?
It was proposed to limit slavery
above the southern border of
Missouri in 1820 by Senator
Jesse B. Thomas of Illinois
(1806-1850) but was strongly
supported by Henry Clay
(1777 – 1852).

The Missouri Compromise drew an
imaginary line at 36 degrees 30 minutes, dividing the new Louisiana Territory into two areas, one north and one south. All of the Louisiana Territory north of this line was free territory, meaning that any territories that became states from this area would enable African-Americans to be free.

The Compromise acknowledged Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a non-slave state at the same time, keeping the balance between slave and free states in the Union.
Bibliography
• Alchin, L. (n.d.). Black Codes: Restricting Freedom of ex-slaves ***. [online] American-historama.org. Available at: http://www.american-historama.org/1866-1881-reconstruction-era/black-codes.htm [Accessed 18 May 2015].
• Alchin, L. (n.d.). Missouri Compromise: American History for kids ***. [online] American-historama.org. Available at: http://www.american-historama.org/1801-1828-evolution/missouri-compromise.htm [Accessed 20 May 2015].
• Alchin, L. (n.d.). 1793 and 1850 Fugitive Slave Act for kids***. [online] American-historama.org. Available at: http://www.american-historama.org/1841-1850-westward-expansion/fugitive-slave-act.htm [Accessed 23 May 2015].
• Alchin, L. (n.d.). Kansas-Nebraska Act for kids: Map,Facts and Effects ***. [online] American-historama.org. Available at: http://www.american-historama.org/1850-1860-secession-era/kansas-nebraska-act.htm [Accessed 27 May 2015].
• Danson, E. (2001). Drawing the line. New York: John Wiley.
• Encyclopedia Britannica, (2014). Mason and Dixon Line. [online] Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/368051/Mason-and-Dixon-Line [Accessed 28 May 2015].
• Historymartinez's Blog, (2011). Louisiana Black Code (1865) primary source document w/ reading questions. [online] Available at: https://historymartinez.wordpress.com/2011/03/17/louisiana-black-code-1865-primary-source-document-w-reading-questions/ [Accessed 18 May 2015].
• HISTORY.com, (n.d.). Fugitive Slave Acts - Black History - HISTORY.com. [online] Available at: http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/fugitive-slave-acts [Accessed 25 May 2015].
• Loc.gov, (n.d.). Effects of the Fugitive-Slave-Law. [online] Available at: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008661523/?loclr=blogtea [Accessed 25 May 2015].
• Loc.gov, (n.d.). Kansas-Nebraska Act: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress). [online] Available at: https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/kansas.html [Accessed 27 May 2015].
• Loc.gov, (n.d.). Missouri Compromise: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress). [online] Available at: http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Missouri.html [Accessed 22 May 2015].
• McNamara, R. (n.d.). Missouri Compromise, First Major 19th Century Compromise Over Slavery. [online] About.com Education. Available at: http://history1800s.about.com/od/slaveryinamerica/a/missouricompro.htm [Accessed 22 May 2015].
• Richards, A. (n.d.). What Were the Black Codes? - History, Lesson & Quiz | Study.com. [online] Study.com. Available at: http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-were-the-black-codes-history-lesson-quiz.html [Accessed 18 May 2015].
• White, D. (n.d.). Missouri Compromise. [online] Socialstudiesforkids.com. Available at: http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/wwww/us/missouricompromisedef.htm [Accessed 20 May 2015].
• Williams, K. (n.d.). Defining Line. [online] PorterBriggs.com. Available at: http://porterbriggs.com/defining-line/ [Accessed 28 May 2015].








What was it?
The Fugitive Slave Acts were a pair of federal laws that allowed for the capture and return of runaway slaves within the territory of the United States.

The 1793 Fugitive Slave Act pledged the right of a owners to recover an escaped slave. Penalties for helping slaves was $500. The effects of the 1793 Fugitive Act was that legal, organized, slave patrols were established in the south and that the public opinion in the north gradually strengthened against slavery.

The 1850 Fugitive Slave Act increased penalties against fugitive slaves and the people who helped them. The reason the 1850 law was established was because thousands of slaves had escaped from slavery in the slave states of the south to the free states in the north. Penalties for helping slaves were increased to $1000 and six months in jail. The effects of the 1850 Act was that it penalised United States officials who did not arrest runaway slaves and that runaway slaves
were not permitted to a jury trial.

Both the Acts were officially abolished
by an act of Congress on June 28, 1864.
The 13th Amendment was passed on
January 31, 1865 abolishing slavery.
What was it?
The Mason-Dixon Line is
not just one line: it is three. It
determines the southern border
of Delaware, its western border
with Maryland, and the border
between Maryland and
Pennsylvania. It is the Pennsylvania-
Maryland divide that is most often meant by the term.

Before Civil War period it was considered as the dividing line between slave states south of it and free states north of it. Between 1763 and 1767 the 375-kilometre line was surveyed along the parallel 39 degrees 43 minutes by two Englishmen, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon. They defined the long-argued boundaries of the overlapping land of the Penns (owners of Pennsylvania), and the Calverts (owners of Maryland). Mason and Dixon also surveyed much of the argued boundary between Maryland and the territory of Delaware, which had been obtained by William Penn.

Today the Mason and Dixon Line still acts symbolically as the political and social dividing line between the north and the south.

An example of the Louisiana Black Code which was designed to protect white supremacy in Southern states after the Civil War
Missouri Territory formerly Louisiana
Effects of the Fugitive Slave Act
Political map of the United States showing the comparative area of the free and slave states and the territory open to slavery or freedom by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise.
Three lines of the Mason-Dixon Line
Full transcript